מאמרים

מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Analysis of observed variability and trends in numbers of frost days in Turkey for the period 1950-2010

This study examines the climatology of annual frost days, and analyses the size and behaviour of the long-term variability and trends in annual numbers of frost day at the 72 stations over Turkey from 1950 to 2010. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) The annual number of frost days has evidently decreased at most of the stations with some observed regional differences, (2) The decreasing trends are largest over the Eastern Anatolia, the Marmara regions and along the Mediterranean coastline. The meteorological stations located in the continental northeast and the easternmost parts of the Anatolian Peninsula, including Ardahan, Iǧdır and Van, show a negative linear trend with a rate of four days per decade, (3) As in other regions of the Earth, changes in number of frost days are very likely associated with changes in minimum air temperatures and increasing growing season lengths in Turkey, (4) The decreasing trends in number of frost days also indicated considerable decadal-scale variability. This variability is very likely attributable to the large-scale atmospheric circulation and atmospheric oscillations such as the Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the North Sea-Caspian Pattern, (5) Consequently, the long-winter (DJFM) composites of number of frost days were examined for extreme phases of the AO index during the period 1950–2010 in order to assess the influence of atmospheric oscillations on year-to-year variability in number of frost days. According to the Cramer's tk test, winter number of frost days tended to increase significantly during the high (positive) index AO phase, while they tended to decrease significantly during the low (negative) index AO phase. These relationships are statistically significant at the 1% level at the majority of stations.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis of the palmer drought indices

The aim of the paper is to employ Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis to drought indices including Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI), Palmer Moisture Anomaly (Z) Index (Z-Index), Weighted Palmer Drought Severity Index (WPDSI), and Water Deficit (P–PET) Index and to compare their resultant spatial patterns across Turkey. In this respect, the PDSI, PHDI, Z, WPDSI, Aridity Index (AI) and P–PET Index values are calculated based on observed monthly temperature and precipitation values of the 96 Turkish meteorological stations for the 1929–2009 period, and gridded available water holding capacities (AWHC) in 1-m soil depth are extracted from the soil data sets of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Centre (ORNL DAAC). By considering the strong match among the PDSI, PHDI, and WPDSI based on the results of the patterns of the first EOFs (EOF1) with the highest eigenvalue, we suggest that using and applying one of these drought indices could be adequate for a drought analysis in Turkey. On the other hand, it is evident that the significant results from the EOF2, EOF3 and EOF4 loadings of the PHDI and WPDSI indices have a similar pattern across Turkey. Therefore, with respect to the geographical autocorrelation and magnitudes of the loading values, it is explained that the PDSI and WPDSI in particular could have originated from the same physical process, and one may have a preference for the effective usage of a combination of PDSI, PHDI and Z-Index. Consequently, in a multi-purpose medium- and long-term drought management plan for Turkey or in any country having similar climatic and physical geographical conditions, using one of the three drought indices along with the Z-Index could be acceptable for successful applications.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Assessment of the desertification vulnerability of the Cappadocian district (Central Anatolia, Turkey) based on aridity and climate-process sys

The present study discusses climate of the Cappadocian district in Turkey on the basis of Thornthwaite’s climate classification and water budget, Erinç’s aridity index and United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) aridity index, along with the spatial and inter-seasonal variations of precipitation and air temperatures. Vulnerability of the Cappadocia to desertification processes was also investigated with respect to the aridity, lithology dominated by tuffs and climate-process system and present land-use features of the district. The data analysis revealed that coefficients of variation (CV) of the mean and maximum temperatures are the greatest in summer and the smallest in winter. Nevşehir and Kayseri environs are the most continental parts of the Cappadocia with a high inter-annual variability and low temperatures. Cappadocia is characterized with a continental rainfall regime having a maximum precipitation in spring. Variability of summer precipitation totals is greater than that of other seasons, varying from 65.7% to 78%. The CVs of the annual precipitation totals are about 18% at north and about 20% at south. Semi-arid and dry sub-humid or semi-humid climate types prevail over Cappadocia according to Thornthwaite’s moisture and Erinç’s aridity indices. Steppe is the dominant vegetation formation with sparse dry forests. The Cappadocia is vulnerable to the desertification processes due to both natural factors (e.g. degree of aridity, climate-process system, weathering of tuffs, erosion, climate change, etc.) and human-involvement (e.g. land degradation and intensive tourism, etc.). In order to mitigate desertification and to preserve the historical and cultural heritages in Cappadocia, sustainable land-use management and tourism planning applications are urgently needed.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Use of the spectral clustering to determine coherent precipitation regions in Turkey for the period 1929–2007

In this study, we suggest the spectral clustering (SC), a hybrid clustering technique based on singular value decomposition (SVD) and K-means for grouping features of precipitation totals of 96 stations in Turkey. Clustering process establishes an exhaustive set of occupied regimes into distinct climatic zones. Results of the SC satisfactorily represent the influences of the synoptic-scale weather systems including such as the mid-latitude and Mediterranean frontal cyclones, and the mid-latitude travelling and eastern Europe high pressures in winter, sub-tropical Azores high pressure and monsoon low in summer. Results of the SC also well display the influences of local-scale atmospheric disturbances, and direct influences of physical geographical features of Turkey (i.e. exposure, topography, orography, land-sea distribution, continentality and the high Anatolian peninsula) on the geographical variability and coherent distribution of the annual precipitation totals over Turkey. Finally, based on the results of the SC method employed to annual precipitation totals of 96 stations in Turkey for the period of 1929–2007, eight clusters of precipitation coherent zones are determined, namely Black Sea, Northwest Turkey, southern Aegean and western Mediterranean, Mediterranean, West Continental Central Anatolia, East Continental Central Anatolia, Continental eastern and south-eastern Anatolia.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2005

New Evidence for the Role of the North Sea: Caspian Pattern on the Temperature and Precipitation Regimes in Continental Central Turkey

Monthly mean temperatures and monthly precipitation totals at six stations from theCappadocian sub-region in the continental Central Anatolia region of Turkey were analysed in order to detect the response of the variability in the Cappadocian climate to the variability of the North Sea - Caspian Pattern Index (NCPI). Most of this region is classified as semi-arid according to various climate classifications. Time series of the NCPI for the period 1958–1998, enabled each month from October toApril to be classified as belonging to the negative phase NCP(−), positive phase NCP(+) or neutral conditions. Monthly temperature and precipitation series for each station were analysed separately for both phases. Temperatures during NCP(−) were found to be considerably higher than during NCP(+). These results confirm previous results regarding the role of the NCP in controlling the temperature regime in that region. No significant differences were found in precipitation totals between the two phases, but major differences were identified in their spatial structure.
מידע נוסף

מאמרים ופרסומים אחרונים

מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2019

Socioeconomic and data challenges: Disaster risk reduction in Europe - UNDRR - 2019

Disaster risk reduction (DRR) involves complex processes with different stakeholders at all administrative levels. Two elements in particular play a major role: the need to ensure stakeholders' interoperability through an efficient exchange of data, and the inclusion of socioeconomic factors which may influence DRR processes. This report aims at contributing to increase the global knowledge on these two elements, focusing on the related issues affecting DRR throughout the European continent.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2019

IPCC 2019 - Refinement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

The 2019 Refinement to the 2006 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories was adopted and accepted during the 49th Session of the IPCC in May 2019. It was prepared by the Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (TFI) in accordance with the decision taken at the 44th Session of IPCC in Bangkok, Thailand, in October 2016
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2019

Climate Change and Land - Special Report - IPCC

An IPCC special report on climate change, desertification, land degradation, sustainable land management, food security, and greenhouse gas fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2019

GAR 2019 - Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction - UNDRR

The 2019 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction (GAR) is informed by the latest data – including Sendai Framework target reporting by countries using the Sendai Framework Monitor – and infers early lessons on the state of the global disaster risk landscape. While the observed period is still too short to reach definitive conclusions at a global scale, it is possible to ascertain certain patterns in terms of magnitude, geographic and socioeconomic distribution of impacts and abstract
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2019

WMO Statement on the state of the global climate in 2018

This publication marks the twenty-fifth anniversary of the WMO Statement on the State of the Global Climate, which was first issued in 1994. The 2019 edition treating data for 2018 marks sustained international efforts dedicated to reporting on, analysing and understanding the year-to-year variations and long-term trends of a changing climate
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2018

Global Warming of 1.5 ºC - Special Report - IPCC

An IPCC special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

Periodic Report Summary 1 - DYNAMIC (DYNamic feedbacks of climate impacts on current Adaptation and Mitigation Investment Choice)

The DYNAMIC (DYNamic feedbacks of climate impacts on current Adaptation and Mitigation Investment Choice) project proposes a novel framework to evaluate the economic consequences of climate change impacts and related policy responses.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

בחינת תרומת קבוצות סוציו אקונומיות בישראל לפליטות גזי חממה מצריכת מזון ביתי

לייצור המזון, במיוחד בחקלאות התעשייתית, נודעת השפעה ממשית על היקף פליטות גזי חממה באופן ישיר או עקיף. גזי חממה אלו נוצרים בכל שלבי מחזור החיים של המזון, החל משלב החקלאות ותשומותיו, דרך הייצור, הפצה, קירור, קמעונאות, הכנת המזון בבית וכלה בסילוק הפסולת.למעשה, בעוד שבמחקרים השונים קיימת הסכמה על כך שפליטות גזי חממה מייצור המזון וצריכתו מהוות חלק משמעותי מפליטות גזי החממה בעולם, המחלוקת המחקרית נסובה סביב הערכת היקף הפליטות. לדוגמא, לפי דוח של האו"ם מ- 2014 14.5% מפליטות גזי החממה כתוצאה מפעילו
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2014

Explaining Extreme Weather Events of 2013 from a Climate Perspective

The annual Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) special issue on the attribution of last year’s extreme weather events is published today. This year’s issue “explaining extreme events of 2013 – from a climate perspective” includes two papers led by researchers from our climateprediction. This is a highly-cited and influential annual publication coined in 2012 asking whether and to what extent anthropogenic climate change altered the risk of major extreme weather events of the p
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2014

Lima call for climate action- Decision

Climate Action & UNEP delivered their fifth annual Sustainable Innovation Forum on December 9 in Lima. This year’s event brought together close to 500 leaders from key United Nations bodies, governments, international & regional companies and leading non-governmental organisations (NGO's).
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

Climate Prediction for Adaptation: Who needs what?

The role of short- and long-term climate predictions in determining the success of adaptation to climate change is investigated. A simple theoretical model that captures the relationship between adaptive performance, decision structure, and prediction accuracy at different temporal scales is developed, and its implications deduced. It is shown that users who face high adjustment costs (i.e. are inflexible) depend more heavily on accurate long-term predictions than those who are able to adjust
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

UK climate change risk assessment: government report

The Government published the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA) on 25 January 2012, the first assessment of its kind for the UK and the first in a 5 year cycle. It sets out the main priorities for adaptation in the UK under 5 key themes identified in the CCRA 2012 Evidence Report - Agriculture and Forestry; Business, industries and Services; Health and Wellbeing; Natural Environment and Buildings and Infrastructure - and describes the policy context, and action already in place to tackle
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

2011 Bonn Declaration of Mayors

This declaration is the outcome document of the Mayors Adaptation Forum, which forms the Mayors segment of the Resilient Cities 2011 congress. It highlights the need to build resilience to disasters as a critical issue. It also signals the need to take appropriate action to build local capacities in reducing risk to disasters including those exacerbated by climate change.
The declaration advocates for the implementation of the following: (i) mainstreaming new adaptation and resilience standard
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

A double-resolution transient RCM climate change

A double-resolution regional experiment on hydrodynamic simulation of climate over the eastern Mediterranean (EM) region was performed using an International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste RegCM3 model. The RegCM3 was driven from the lateral boundaries by the data from the ECHAM5/MPI-OM global climate simulation performed at the MPI-M, Hamburg and based on the A1B IPCC scenario of greenhouse gases emission. Two simulation runs for the time period 1960-2060, employing spatial resolutions
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Climate Change Adaptation and Real Option Evaluation: A Case Study in Campeche, Mexico

This report illustrates the application of a (relatively) new method to guide decision making under high (and unknowable) levels of uncertainty. The approach allows for the identification of robust policy options that are economically beneficial under different scenarios and varying levels uncertainty. Option value techniques are commonly employed in the finance literature to identify investment decisions that are resilient across a spectrum of outcomes. The methods are technically advanced
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

ipcc summary for policymakers

The Working Group III Special Report on Renewa
ble Energy Sources and Climate Change
Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of th
e literature on the scientific, technological,
environmental, economic and social aspects of
the contribution of six renewable energy (RE)
sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is
intended to provide policy relevant information to
governments, intergovernmental processes and ot
her interested parties. This Summary for
Policymakers provides an ov
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2008

Climate change- vulnerability and adaptation indicators

The purpose of this Technical Paper is to rehearse some fundamental concepts surrounding the
development and delineation of adaptation indicators. It builds upon the outputs of an Expert meeting
on climate change vulnerability and adaptation indicators (Budapest, September 2008) and on the
contents of a Background Paper that was prepared for the meeting.
מידע נוסף
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