מאמרים

מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2016

Medecc

Mediterranean Experts on Climate and Environmental Change
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

Impacts of Climate Change on Vector Borne Diseases in the Mediterranean Basin — Implications for Preparedness and Adaptation Policy

The Mediterranean region is vulnerable to climatic changes. A warming trend exists in the basin with changes in rainfall patterns. It is expected that vector-borne diseases (VBD) in the region will be influenced by climate change since weather conditions influence their emergence. For some diseases (i.e., West Nile virus) the linkage between emergence andclimate change was recently proved; for others (such as dengue) the risk for local transmission is real. Consequently, adaptation and preparati
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

A new methodology for identifying daughter cyclogenesis: application for the Mediterranean Basin

This study is the first one to objectively identify ‘parent–daughter’ relationships between cyclones and to apply it to Mediterranean cyclones (MCs). The methodology includes cyclone detection, tracking and mapping the area of influence of a cyclone; here daughter cyclones are expected to be found. Cyclone detection and tracking is based on standard algorithms, which were modified to cope with irregularities in intensity and trajectory shapes of MCs. We have developed our own algorithm for mappi
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2014

Extreme summer temperatures in the East Mediterranean—dynamical analysis

This research analyses the scenarios that break the monotonic summer regime over the East Mediterranean (EM). The study compares the five upper, median and lower percentiles of the 850-hPa temperature for July–August 1975–2005. The temperature differences were found to be confined to the lower 4 km. They are controlled by the intensity of the negative temperature advection, but not by the prevailing subsidence. Air trajectory analysis shows that the regional prevailing northwest winds are the st
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2013

Factors affecting isotopic composition of the rainwater in the Negev Desert, Israel

The study examines the δ18O of rain observed in the middle of the Negev Desert, Israel, based on seven rainstorms, associated with convective clouds resulting from midlatitude cyclones found over Trans-Jordan. The analysis is based on synoptic maps, vertical atmospheric cross sections, and air back trajectories. The rainwater sampling was done in temporal scale of hours. Four known factors were addressed here: the temperature effect, the amount effect, and two geographical effects: the marine an
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2013

Coupled climate model simulations of Mediterranean winter cyclones and large-scale flow patterns

The study aims to evaluate the ability of global, coupled climate models to reproduce the synoptic regime of the Mediterranean Basin. The output of simulations of the 9 models included in the IPCC CMIP3 effort is compared to the NCEP-NCAR reanalyzed data for the period 1961–1990. The study examined the spatial distribution of cyclone occurrence, the mean Mediterranean upper- and lower-level troughs, the inter-annual variation and trend in the occurrence of the Mediterranean cyclones, and the mai
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

The Mediterranean City: A Conference on Climate Change Adaptation

The Mediterranean City: A Conference on Climate Change Adaptation will initiate an ongoing collaboration of cities working together to share ideas, needs and strategies to adapt to the current and future impacts of climate change as they similarly affect the five Mediterranean-climate regions of the world. The conference will bring together an international network of experts from the academic, policy, business, public health and government worlds. Mediterranean-climate regions largely occur along the western edges of continents between the 30 degree and 40 degree parallels in both northern and southern hemispheres. The Mediterranean climate, moderated by cold ocean currents offshore, is characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters. While these ecosystems cover just under three percent of the earth's land area, they contain about 20 percent of its plant biodiversity, including over 26, 000 endemic species.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Impact of climate change on the water resources of the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East region: Modeled 21st century changes and implications

The likely effects of climate change on the water resources of the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East region are investigated using a high-resolution regional climate model (PRECIS) by comparing precipitation simulations of 2040–2069 and 2070–2099 with 1961–1990. The simulations show about a 10% decline in precipitation across the region by both the middle and the end of the century, with considerable variation between countries and international river basins. Results suggest that per capita water resources will not change particularly significantly in southeastern Europe, where they are relatively plentiful and population growth is minimal. However, in much of the Middle East, climate change coupled with population growth is likely to reduce per capita water resources considerably. This will inevitably result in major social, economic, and environmental change in the region. Countries where the required adaptation is likely to be particularly challenging include Turkey and Syria because of the large agricultural workforces, Iraq because of the magnitude of the change and its downstream location, and Jordan because of its meager per capita water resources coupled with limited options for desalination. If the internal water footprint of the region declines in line with precipitation but the total water footprint of the region increases in line with population, then by midcentury, as much as half the total water needs of the region may need to be provided through desalination and imported in the form of virtual water.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Trends and extremes of drought indices throughout the 20th century in the Mediterranean

Average monthly precipitation, the original Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and a recent adaptation to Europe, the Self Calibrated PDSI (scPDSI) have been used here to analyse the spatial and temporal evolution of drought conditions in the Mediterranean during the 20th century. Monthly, seasonal and annual trends were computed for the period 1901–2000 and also for the first and second halves of this period. The statistical significance of trends was obtained with a modified version of the Mann-Kendall test that accounts for serial auto-correlation. The results show a clear trend towards drier conditions during the 20th century in most western and central Mediterranean regions, with the exceptions of northwestern Iberia and most of Turkey that reveal an increase of moisture availability. A Generalized Extreme Values (GEV) analysis was applied to the maximum and minimum regional values of scPDSI, with results pointing towards a significant decline of absolute extreme values in central areas (Italy and Balkans) and a less clear picture emerging in western (Iberia) and eastern (Turkey) realms.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Extreme value indicators in highly resolved climate change simulations for the Jordan River area

Understanding changing trends and frequency of extreme rainfall and temperature events is extremely important for optimal planning in many sectors, including agriculture, water resource management, health, and even economics. For people living in the Jordan River region of the Middle East such changes can have immediate devastating impacts as water resources are already scarce and overexploited and summer temperatures in the desert regions can reach 45°C or higher. Understanding shifts in frequency and intensity of extreme events can provide crucial information for planning and adaptation. In this paper we present results from regional climate model simulations with RegCM3 and MM5 centered on the eastern Mediterranean region. Our analysis focuses on changes in extreme temperature and rainfall events. We show that maximum daily summer temperature is expected to increase by between 2.5°C and 3°C, with an increase in warm spell length. Precipitation extremes are expected to increase with longer dry spells, shorter wet spells, and increases in heavy rainfall. Model agreement for the control period 1961–1990 is higher in the southern region than in the north, perhaps because of the complex topography, suggesting that even small differences in spatial scale play an important role. In addition, we notice that the chosen global model plays an important role in determining future temperature trends, while the choice of regional climate model is critical for understanding how precipitation is expected to evolve.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

The relevance of the North-Sea Caspian Pattern (NCP) in explaining temperature variability in Europe and the Mediterranean

The impact of the upper level (500 hPa) teleconnection between the North-Sea and the Caspian (NCP) on the temperature and precipitation regimes in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) have been studied and reported and an index (NCPI) that measures the normalized geopotential heights' differences between the two poles of this teleconnection has been defined. In the present study, the impact of the NCP on the temperature regime over the entire European continent is presented. In particular, the correlation between temperature and the NCPI has been evaluated, on a monthly basis, over the entire Euro-Mediterranean domain for the 1948–2007 period. The results highlight a significant positive correlation in the north-western area of the domain and a significant negative correlation in the south-eastern one. These two poles were also highlighted by comparing the temperature anomalies associated with both phases of NCP. The importance of this sort of NCP-induced temperature bi-pole in the context of temperature variability over Europe and the Mediterranean has been evaluated by applying a Principal Component Analysis to the temperature dataset. The results showed that the temperature bi-pole is associated with the second most important mode of temperature variability over the domain, but if the analysis is restricted to the months associated to NCP (+) and NCP (−), it becomes the first mode with 29.2 % of associated variance.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Water cycle changes over the Mediterranean:a comparison study of a super-high-resolution

Water cycle components over the Mediterranean for both a current run (1979–2007) and a future run (2075–2099) are studied with the Japan Meteorological Agency’s 20 km grid global climate model. Results are compared with another study using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 ensemble model (hereafter, the Mariotti model). Our results are surprisingly close to Mariotti’s. The projected mean annual change rates of precipitation (P) between the future and the current run for sea and land are −11 per cent and −10 per cent, respectively, which are not as high as Mariotti’s. Projected changes for evaporation (E) are +9.3 per cent and −3.6 per cent, compared with +7.2 per cent and −8.1 per cent in Mariotti’s study, respectively. However, no significant difference in the change in P–E over the sea body was found between these two studies. The increased E over the eastern Mediterranean was found to be higher than that in the western Mediterranean, but the P decrease was lower. The net moisture budget, P–E, shows that the eastern Mediterranean will become even drier than the western Mediterranean. The river model suggests decreasing water inflow to the Mediterranean of approximately 36 per cent (excluding the Nile).
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Water cycle changes over the Mediterranean: a comparison study of a super-high-resolution global model with CMIP3

Water cycle components over the Mediterranean for both a current run (1979–2007) and a future run (2075–2099) are studied with the Japan Meteorological Agency’s 20 km grid global climate model. Results are compared with another study using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 ensemble model (hereafter, the Mariotti model). Our results are surprisingly close to Mariotti’s. The projected mean annual change rates of precipitation (P) between the future and the current run for sea and land are −11 per cent and −10 per cent, respectively, which are not as high as Mariotti’s. Projected changes for evaporation (E) are +9.3 per cent and −3.6 per cent, compared with +7.2 per cent and −8.1 per cent in Mariotti’s study, respectively. However, no significant difference in the change in P–E over the sea body was found between these two studies. The increased E over the eastern Mediterranean was found to be higher than that in the western Mediterranean, but the P decrease was lower. The net moisture budget, P–E, shows that the eastern Mediterranean will become even drier than the western Mediterranean. The river model suggests decreasing water inflow to the Mediterranean of approximately 36 per cent (excluding the Nile).
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Green roof energy and water related performance in the Mediterranean climate

Performance of vegetated roofs are investigated in terms of their expected benefits for the building and the urban environment, due to their recognised energy and water management potential scores. A review of related worldwide experiences is reported for comparison purposes. The investigation is here performed within the specific climatic context of the Mediterranean region. Full-scale experimental results are provided from two case studies, located in north-west and central Italy, consisting in two fully monitored green roofs on top of public buildings. The attenuation of solar radiation through the vegetation layer is evaluated as well as the thermal insulation performance of the green roof structure. The daily heat flow through the roof surface is quantified showing that the green roof outperforms the reference roof, therefore reducing the daily energy demand. As for water management, it is confirmed that green roofs significantly mitigate storm water runoff generation – even in a Mediterranean climate – in terms of runoff volume reduction, peak attenuation and increase of concentration time, although reduced performance could be observed during high precipitation periods.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Temperature extremes in the Mediterranean area: trends in the past and assessments for the future

Trends of Mediterranean extreme temperatures are analysed for the period 1961–1990 based on daily station time series. Increases can be identified in the western Mediterranean area, whereas an opposite trend becomes apparent for the eastern Mediterranean region. Assessments of the 95th percentile of maximum temperatures in summer and of the 5th percentile of minimum temperatures in winter for the 21st century under enhanced greenhouse warming conditions are performed by means of statistical downscaling techniques. Mainly increases of both extreme indices result from these assessments, but considerable differences arise when using different predictors or predictor combinations, respectively. Furthermore, the results give strong indications that changes in temperature extremes do not follow a simple shift of the whole temperature distribution to higher values.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Quantification of Saharan dust contribution to PM10 concentrations over Italy during 2003-2005

Italy is frequently affected by Saharan dust intrusions, which result in high PM10 concentrations in the atmosphere and can cause the exceedances of the PM10 daily limits (50 μg m−3) set by the European Union (EU/2008/50). The estimate of African dust contribution to PM10 concentrations is therefore a key issue in air quality assessment and policy formulation. This study presents a first identification of Saharan dust outbreaks as well as an estimate of the African dust contribution to PM10 concentrations during the period 2003–2005 over Italy. The identification of dust events has been carried out by looking at different sources of information such as monitoring network observations, satellite images, ground measurements of aerosol optical properties, dust model simulations and air mass backward trajectory analysis. The contribution of Saharan dust to PM10 monthly concentrations has been estimated at seven Italian locations. The results are both spatially (with station) and temporally (with month and year) variable, as a consequence of the variability of the meteorological conditions. However, excluding the contribution of severe dust events (21st February 2004, 25th–28th September 2003, 23rd–27th March 2005), the monthly contribution of dust varies approximately between 1 μg m−3 and 10 μg m−3 throughout year 2005 and between 1 μg m−3 and 8 μg m−3 throughout year 2003. In 2004 the dust concentration is lower than 2003 and 2005 (<5 μg m−3 at all sites). The reduction in the number of daily exceedances of the limit value (50 μg m−3) after subtraction of the dust contribution is also calculated at each station: it varies with station between 20% and 50% in 2005 and between 5% and 25% in 2003 and 2004.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Lightning and rain dynamic indices as predictors for flash floods events in the Mediterranean

The FLASH EU funded project aims to observe, analyze and model lightning activity in thunderstorms for use in short term forecasting of flash floods in the Mediterranean region. Two new indices, aimed to assess the potential for heavy precipitation and flash-floods, are proposed and eval-uated. The first is a lightning index – the MKI, which is a modified version of the KI-index. The applied index gives more weight to the lower-and mid-level relative humidity. The second is a new rain index, the RDI, which is the in-tegrated product of specific humidity and vertical velocity. With the aim to contribute to the aforementioned objectives, 3 flash flood events, two in Israel and one in Greece are ana-lyzed in the present study, using the 2 proposed indices. The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis database, of 2.5 • ×2.5 • res-olution, failed to resolve the meso-scale features of the ob-served flash flood events. Therefore, the ECWMF database, of 0.5 • ×0.5 • resolution, was used for calculating and dis-playing the two indices. Comparison between the observed rain and lightning and the respective indices for the two pieces of data was performed for the flash flood events. The results show good concordance of both indices with timing and spatial distribution in 2 of them, while in one of them is displaced by more than 50 km. The good agreement in locating the maximum between the MKI and RDI suggests that the proposed indices are good predictors for both in-tense lightning activity and torrential rain and consequently, for potential flash floods.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Heat wave changes in the eastern Mediterranean since 1960

A new data set of high-quality homogenized daily maximum and minimum summer air temperature series from 246 stations in the eastern Mediterranean region (including Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey) is developed and used to quantify changes in heat wave number, length and intensity between 1960 and 2006. Daily temperature homogeneity analyses suggest that many instrumental measurements in the 1960s are warm-biased, correcting for these biases regionally averaged heat wave trends are up to 8% higher. We find significant changes across the western Balkans, southwestern and western Turkey, and along the southern Black Sea coastline. Since the 1960s, the mean heat wave intensity, heat wave length and heat wave number across the eastern Mediterranean region have increased by a factor of 7.6 ± 1.3, 7.5 ± 1.3 and 6.2 ± 1.1, respectively. These findings suggest that the heat wave increase in this region is higher than previously reported.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Climate-controlled multidecadal variability in North African dust transport to the Mediterranean

High-resolution laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectroscopy scanning of resin-embedded laminated sediments is used to detail variability in the composition and magnitude of recent eolian dust deposition in the Eastern Mediterranean. The composition of dust accumulating in the anoxic Atalante basin varies in response to the strength of the summer blocking mode of Mediterranean climate. Dust sources located upwind on the westerly airflow are favored during phases of weaker blocking (hence stronger summer westerlies). This mode is in turn correlated to the pronounced multidecadal oscillation in Mediterranean sea-surface temperature (related to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation), suggesting that coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics control the large-scale transport of dust in the region. Variable precipitation in dust source regions may also exert an influence on the relative flux of dust from each source, and hence the net composition of dust deposited in the basin. Persistent oscillations in the composition of deeper sediments indicate that the basin offers a high-potential archive for reconstruction of climate-controlled variability in dust transport prior to the instrumental era.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Characterisation of extreme winter precipitation in Mediterranean coastal sites and associated anomalous atmospheric circulation patterns

We present an analysis of daily extreme precipitation events for the extended winter season (October–March) at 20 Mediterranean coastal sites covering the period 1950–2006. The heavy tailed behaviour of precipitation extremes and estimated return levels, including associated uncertainties, are derived applying a procedure based on the Generalized Pareto Distribution, in combination with recently developed methods. Precipitation extremes have an important contribution to make seasonal totals (approximately 60% for all series). Three stations (one in the western Mediterranean and the others in the eastern basin) have a 5-year return level above 100 mm, while the lowest value (estimated for two Italian series) is equal to 58 mm. As for the 50-year return level, an Italian station (Genoa) has the highest value of 264 mm, while the other values range from 82 to 200 mm. Furthermore, six series (from stations located in France, Italy, Greece, and Cyprus) show a significant negative tendency in the probability of observing an extreme event. The relationship between extreme precipitation events and the large scale atmospheric circulation at the upper, mid and low troposphere is investigated by using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. A 2-step classification procedure identifies three significant anomaly patterns both for the western-central and eastern part of the Mediterranean basin. In the western Mediterranean, the anomalous southwesterly surface to mid-tropospheric flow is connected with enhanced moisture transport from the Atlantic. During ≥5-year return level events, the subtropical jet stream axis is aligned with the African coastline and interacts with the eddy-driven jet stream. This is connected with enhanced large scale ascending motions, instability and leads to the development of severe precipitation events. For the eastern Mediterranean extreme precipitation events, the identified anomaly patterns suggest warm air advection connected with anomalous ascent motions and an increase of the low- to mid-tropospheric moisture. Furthermore, the jet stream position (during ≥5-year return level events) supports the eastern basin being in a divergence area, where ascent motions are favoured. Our results contribute to an improved understanding of daily precipitation extremes in the cold season and associated large scale atmospheric features.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Winter synoptic-scale variability over the Mediterranean Basin under future climate conditions as simulated by the ECHAM5

Changes of the winter climate in the Mediterranean Basin (MB) for future A2 conditions are investigated for the period 2071–2100 and compared with the control period 1961–1990. The analysis is based on time-slice simulations of the latest version of the ECHAM model. First, the control simulation is evaluated with reanalysis data. The emphasis is given to synoptic and large-scale features and their variability in the MB. The model is found to be capable of reproducing the main features of the MB and southern Europe in the winter season. Second, the A2 simulation is compared with the control simulation, revealing considerable changes of the synoptic variability. Focusing on the synoptic spatio-temporal scale aims to unfold the dynamic background of the climatic changes. The Mediterranean cyclones, which are individually detected and tracked, decrease by 10% in the Western Mediterranean (WM) whereas no significant change is found in the Eastern Mediterranean. The cyclone intensity is slightly reduced in the entire region. To understand these changes, the underlying dynamical background is analyzed. It is found that changes in baroclinicity, static stability, transformation from eddy kinetic energy to kinetic energy of the mean flow and stationary wave activity are significant in particular in the WM and the coastline of North Africa. The reduction of cyclonic activity severely impacts the precipitation mainly in the southern part of the WM.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Invasive species and climate change: Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist as a tool for assessing the invasibility of natural plant communities along an aridity gradient

The predicted reduction in precipitation in the eastern Mediterranean due to climate change may expose the natural plant communities to invasive species. We assessed whether natural plant communities along an aridity gradient in Israel were resistant to invasion by considering differences in abiotic conditions and community characteristics in these regions. We considered Conyza canadensis as a model plant as it is a common invader in the region. We examined the mechanisms and functional traits of both the plant communities and C. canadensis that promote or discourage invasion. Study sites represented a rainfall gradient with four ecosystem types: mesic Mediterranean, Mediterranean, semiarid and arid. Our results showed that the mechanisms of community invasion resistance varied along the aridity gradient. At the arid and semiarid sites, water deficiency impaired the establishment of C. canadensis. At the mesic Mediterranean site, plant competition had a negative effect on C. canadensis performance, thus greatly reducing the likelihood of its establishment. We conclude that a decrease in regional precipitation due to climate change may not affect intrinsic resistance characteristics of natural plant communities to invasion in the area.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2007

Challenges to manage the risk of water scarcity and climate change in the Mediterranean

The Mediterranean region is undergoing rapid local and global social and environmental changes. All indicators point to an increase in environmental and water scarcity problems with negative implications towards current and future sustainability. Water management in Mediterranean countries is challenged these pressures and needs to evolve to reach the target of increasing population with reliable access to freshwater established by the Millennium Development Goals. This paper first reviews and evaluates current and future social and environmental pressures on water resources, including climate change. The results show that pressures are not homogeneous across the region and sectors of water use. Second the paper evaluates the adaptation strategies to cope with water scarcity, including technology, use of strategic groundwater, and management. Finally, the paper proposes a framework for managing the risk of water scarcity based on preparedness rather than a crisis approach. The importance of local management at the basin level is emphasized, but the potential benefits depend on the appropriate multi-institutional and multi-stakeholder coordination.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2002

Numerical study of a very intensive eastern Mediterranean dust storm, 13–16 March 1998

Presented herein is an analysis of an exceptionally intensive central and eastern Mediterranean dust intrusion of 15–16 March, 1998. The intrusion has been associated with development of an intense cyclone over Africa. The weather and dust development processes were simulated with the Eta weather and dust prediction model. Also presented is a comparison of the model results with the Total Ozone Mass Spectrometer Aerosol Index (TOMS AI) pictures as well as with those of the surface and weather observations. The roles of the main processes responsible for the dust plume development and associated dust intrusion to the eastern Mediterranean (EM) are studied. The observation data as well as the model-simulated parameters are jointly analyzed. The analysis also includes the data from the back-trajectory computations. With the aid of the model-produced dust profiles we studied the significant variation in the altitudes of the dust layers within the cyclone sectors. In the warm sector of the cyclone located over the Mediterranean Sea the dust layer extended up to 8–10 km. Relatively low dust concentration values were found here. In the area of the cold front over Africa the dust was restricted to the lower troposphere and the planetary boundary layer. Here the model simulated high values of the dust concentrations. The sharp TOMS AI increase over Israel and the eastern Mediterranean up to 5.0 units, further away from the dust sources, is explained by the strong winds, by the increased cyclone convergence, and the formation of a two-layer dust plume.
מידע נוסף

מאמרים ופרסומים אחרונים

מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2019

Socioeconomic and data challenges: Disaster risk reduction in Europe - UNDRR - 2019

Disaster risk reduction (DRR) involves complex processes with different stakeholders at all administrative levels. Two elements in particular play a major role: the need to ensure stakeholders' interoperability through an efficient exchange of data, and the inclusion of socioeconomic factors which may influence DRR processes. This report aims at contributing to increase the global knowledge on these two elements, focusing on the related issues affecting DRR throughout the European continent.
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2019

IPCC 2019 - Refinement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

The 2019 Refinement to the 2006 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories was adopted and accepted during the 49th Session of the IPCC in May 2019. It was prepared by the Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (TFI) in accordance with the decision taken at the 44th Session of IPCC in Bangkok, Thailand, in October 2016
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2019

Climate Change and Land - Special Report - IPCC

An IPCC special report on climate change, desertification, land degradation, sustainable land management, food security, and greenhouse gas fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2019

GAR 2019 - Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction - UNDRR

The 2019 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction (GAR) is informed by the latest data – including Sendai Framework target reporting by countries using the Sendai Framework Monitor – and infers early lessons on the state of the global disaster risk landscape. While the observed period is still too short to reach definitive conclusions at a global scale, it is possible to ascertain certain patterns in terms of magnitude, geographic and socioeconomic distribution of impacts and abstract
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2019

WMO Statement on the state of the global climate in 2018

This publication marks the twenty-fifth anniversary of the WMO Statement on the State of the Global Climate, which was first issued in 1994. The 2019 edition treating data for 2018 marks sustained international efforts dedicated to reporting on, analysing and understanding the year-to-year variations and long-term trends of a changing climate
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2018

Global Warming of 1.5 ºC - Special Report - IPCC

An IPCC special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

Periodic Report Summary 1 - DYNAMIC (DYNamic feedbacks of climate impacts on current Adaptation and Mitigation Investment Choice)

The DYNAMIC (DYNamic feedbacks of climate impacts on current Adaptation and Mitigation Investment Choice) project proposes a novel framework to evaluate the economic consequences of climate change impacts and related policy responses.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

בחינת תרומת קבוצות סוציו אקונומיות בישראל לפליטות גזי חממה מצריכת מזון ביתי

לייצור המזון, במיוחד בחקלאות התעשייתית, נודעת השפעה ממשית על היקף פליטות גזי חממה באופן ישיר או עקיף. גזי חממה אלו נוצרים בכל שלבי מחזור החיים של המזון, החל משלב החקלאות ותשומותיו, דרך הייצור, הפצה, קירור, קמעונאות, הכנת המזון בבית וכלה בסילוק הפסולת.למעשה, בעוד שבמחקרים השונים קיימת הסכמה על כך שפליטות גזי חממה מייצור המזון וצריכתו מהוות חלק משמעותי מפליטות גזי החממה בעולם, המחלוקת המחקרית נסובה סביב הערכת היקף הפליטות. לדוגמא, לפי דוח של האו"ם מ- 2014 14.5% מפליטות גזי החממה כתוצאה מפעילו
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2014

Explaining Extreme Weather Events of 2013 from a Climate Perspective

The annual Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) special issue on the attribution of last year’s extreme weather events is published today. This year’s issue “explaining extreme events of 2013 – from a climate perspective” includes two papers led by researchers from our climateprediction. This is a highly-cited and influential annual publication coined in 2012 asking whether and to what extent anthropogenic climate change altered the risk of major extreme weather events of the p
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2014

Lima call for climate action- Decision

Climate Action & UNEP delivered their fifth annual Sustainable Innovation Forum on December 9 in Lima. This year’s event brought together close to 500 leaders from key United Nations bodies, governments, international & regional companies and leading non-governmental organisations (NGO's).
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

Climate Prediction for Adaptation: Who needs what?

The role of short- and long-term climate predictions in determining the success of adaptation to climate change is investigated. A simple theoretical model that captures the relationship between adaptive performance, decision structure, and prediction accuracy at different temporal scales is developed, and its implications deduced. It is shown that users who face high adjustment costs (i.e. are inflexible) depend more heavily on accurate long-term predictions than those who are able to adjust
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

UK climate change risk assessment: government report

The Government published the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA) on 25 January 2012, the first assessment of its kind for the UK and the first in a 5 year cycle. It sets out the main priorities for adaptation in the UK under 5 key themes identified in the CCRA 2012 Evidence Report - Agriculture and Forestry; Business, industries and Services; Health and Wellbeing; Natural Environment and Buildings and Infrastructure - and describes the policy context, and action already in place to tackle
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

2011 Bonn Declaration of Mayors

This declaration is the outcome document of the Mayors Adaptation Forum, which forms the Mayors segment of the Resilient Cities 2011 congress. It highlights the need to build resilience to disasters as a critical issue. It also signals the need to take appropriate action to build local capacities in reducing risk to disasters including those exacerbated by climate change.
The declaration advocates for the implementation of the following: (i) mainstreaming new adaptation and resilience standard
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

A double-resolution transient RCM climate change

A double-resolution regional experiment on hydrodynamic simulation of climate over the eastern Mediterranean (EM) region was performed using an International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste RegCM3 model. The RegCM3 was driven from the lateral boundaries by the data from the ECHAM5/MPI-OM global climate simulation performed at the MPI-M, Hamburg and based on the A1B IPCC scenario of greenhouse gases emission. Two simulation runs for the time period 1960-2060, employing spatial resolutions
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Climate Change Adaptation and Real Option Evaluation: A Case Study in Campeche, Mexico

This report illustrates the application of a (relatively) new method to guide decision making under high (and unknowable) levels of uncertainty. The approach allows for the identification of robust policy options that are economically beneficial under different scenarios and varying levels uncertainty. Option value techniques are commonly employed in the finance literature to identify investment decisions that are resilient across a spectrum of outcomes. The methods are technically advanced
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

ipcc summary for policymakers

The Working Group III Special Report on Renewa
ble Energy Sources and Climate Change
Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of th
e literature on the scientific, technological,
environmental, economic and social aspects of
the contribution of six renewable energy (RE)
sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is
intended to provide policy relevant information to
governments, intergovernmental processes and ot
her interested parties. This Summary for
Policymakers provides an ov
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2008

Climate change- vulnerability and adaptation indicators

The purpose of this Technical Paper is to rehearse some fundamental concepts surrounding the
development and delineation of adaptation indicators. It builds upon the outputs of an Expert meeting
on climate change vulnerability and adaptation indicators (Budapest, September 2008) and on the
contents of a Background Paper that was prepared for the meeting.
מידע נוסף
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