מאמרים

מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

Shock Waves : Managing the Impacts of Climate Change on Poverty

Ending poverty and stabilizing climate change will be two unprecedented global achievements and two major steps toward sustainable development. But the two objectives cannot be considered in isolation: they need to be jointly tackled through an integrated strategy. This report brings together those two objectives and explores how they can more easily be achieved if considered together. It examines the potential impact of climate change and climate policies on poverty reduction. It also provides
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Human Development Report 2011- Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All

The 2011 Human Development Report argues that the urgent global challenges of sustainability and equity must be addressed together – and identifies policies on the national and global level that could spur mutually reinforcing progress towards these interlinked goals. Bold action is needed on both fronts, the Report contends, if the recent human development progress for most of the world’s poor majority is to be sustained, for the benefit of future generations as well as for those living today. Past Reports have shown that living standards in most countries have been rising - and converging - for several decades now. Yet the 2011 Report projects a disturbing reversal of those trends if environmental deterioration and social inequalities continue to intensify, with the least developed countries diverging downwards from global patterns of progress by 2050. The Report shows further how the world’s most disadvantaged people suffer the most from environmental degradation, including in their immediate personal environment, and disproportionately lack political power, making it all the harder for the world community to reach agreement on needed global policy changes. The Report also outlines great potential for positive synergies in the quest for greater equality and sustainability, especially at the national level. The Report further emphasizes the human right to a healthy environment, the importance of integrating social equity into environmental policies, and the critical importance of public participation and official accountability. The 2011 Report concludes with a call for bold new approaches to global development financing and environmental controls, arguing that these measures are both essential and feasible.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Biodiversity and ecosystem services in urban areas for smart

Kyoto is an old city blessed with beautiful natural and cultural landscapes. With the long history of the various events and responses to them, Kyoto is expected to offer some insight into how to create a sustainable city with resilience relevant to its historical inheritances and biodiversity. In this paper, we attempt to describe some concepts of developments and responses that could mitigate the negative impact of urbanization on its biodiversity and ecosystem services. (1) Modern city planni
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Cambridge Environment Report 2009-10

The Cambridge Environmental Framework adopted at Environment Scrutiny Committee in June 2009 outlined 15 indicators, including 12 national indicators, against which environmental performance in the Council and Cambridge City will be measured. It also contained a commitment to publicly report this performance annually in an Environment Report. This report summarises environmental performance over the first year since adoption of the Cambridge Environmental Framework.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

The use of green walls in sustainable urban context: with reference to Dubai, UAE

The impact of urban development on the natural environment generates unique challenges to architects and engineers seeking passive design strategies in hot and humid climates such as those in Dubai. They are collaborating to design new buildings that are energy efficient, environmentally friendly, and architecturally significant. Passive cooling design techniques, which are recognized mainly in the old Dubai, are energy efficient and can be considered as a good alternative to mechanical cooling systems. Green roofs and façades are passive techniques and add more benefits not only for reducing the energy demand of buildings, but also for providing environmental benefits, including visual relief, accessible green space, and improving air quality. In recent years, greening systems have been practised in many hot cities, including greening directly on to roofs and walls, greening the cavity between walls, and incorporating greening systems within the construction of the wall. Green roofs are frequently used in cities like Dubai; however, practising green wall technology is still new despite its great benefits. Based on the climatic condition of Dubai, this paper attempts to reduce energy consumption in buildings by adopting passive cooling strategies in the sustainable urban context of Dubai. The growing interest in incorporating vegetated green walls into sustainable building is highlighted. To achieve the aim of the study, the following objectives have been covered: to investigate the use of passive cooling strategies in Dubai; to enhance the energy performance by reducing the cooling loads and therefore identifying the optimal parameters for building skins; and to draw guidelines for architects, planners and developers to demonstrate the potential benefits of green wall technology. In this context various issues, including the urban development of Dubai, sustainability, passive cooling techniques, and the performance of green walls, are to be considered.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2006

Sustainability in cities: The green areas and climatic comfort as fundamental parameters

This paper describes the methodology developed by the authors to analyze the influence of \“green areas” on the urban comfort of the city of Valencia, taken as the prototype of Mediterranean cities. Based on the analysis of its climatologic conditions, different \“comfort indices” are used to study several characteristic districts of the city of Valencia which globally define the urban behaviour of this city. Some of these comfort indices have been formulated in terms of the existing green areas; the results obtained permit one to estimate the amount of the green area required in each district to be considered theoretically comfortable. This methodology can be very useful to urban planners in the design and distribution of green areas in cities. The study has been completed with a simultaneous survey on human perception of thermal control. The main conclusion is that green zones play an important role in the thermal comfort of the city and therefore they can be considered one of the most important aspects to take into account in the analysis of urban sustainability. Keywords: urban climate, green zones, urban planning, urban comfort, sustainability, human perception, Valencia (Spain). 1 Introduction Most of the world’s population lives in big cities. Man’s activities have dramatically changed the environmental and climatic characteristics of the urban areas. This particular phenomenon has been extensively studied in the literature and many works have been developed to analyze the factors that affect human comfort in big cities
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2005

Successful adaptation to climate change across scales

Climate change impacts and responses are presently observed in physical and ecological systems. Adaptation to these impacts is increasingly being observed in both physical and ecological systems as well as in human adjustments to resource availability and risk at different spatial and societal scales. We review the nature of adaptation and the implications of different spatial scales for these processes. We outline a set of normative evaluative criteria for judging the success of adaptations at different scales. We argue that elements of effectiveness, efficiency, equity and legitimacy are important in judging success in terms of the sustainability of development pathways into an uncertain future. We further argue that each of these elements of decision-making is implicit within presently formulated scenarios of socio-economic futures of both emission trajectories and adaptation, though with different weighting. The process by which adaptations are to be judged at different scales will involve new and challenging institutional processes.
מידע נוסף

מאמרים ופרסומים אחרונים

מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

Periodic Report Summary 1 - DYNAMIC (DYNamic feedbacks of climate impacts on current Adaptation and Mitigation Investment Choice)

The DYNAMIC (DYNamic feedbacks of climate impacts on current Adaptation and Mitigation Investment Choice) project proposes a novel framework to evaluate the economic consequences of climate change impacts and related policy responses.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

בחינת תרומת קבוצות סוציו אקונומיות בישראל לפליטות גזי חממה מצריכת מזון ביתי

לייצור המזון, במיוחד בחקלאות התעשייתית, נודעת השפעה ממשית על היקף פליטות גזי חממה באופן ישיר או עקיף. גזי חממה אלו נוצרים בכל שלבי מחזור החיים של המזון, החל משלב החקלאות ותשומותיו, דרך הייצור, הפצה, קירור, קמעונאות, הכנת המזון בבית וכלה בסילוק הפסולת.למעשה, בעוד שבמחקרים השונים קיימת הסכמה על כך שפליטות גזי חממה מייצור המזון וצריכתו מהוות חלק משמעותי מפליטות גזי החממה בעולם, המחלוקת המחקרית נסובה סביב הערכת היקף הפליטות. לדוגמא, לפי דוח של האו"ם מ- 2014 14.5% מפליטות גזי החממה כתוצאה מפעילו
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2014

Explaining Extreme Weather Events of 2013 from a Climate Perspective

The annual Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) special issue on the attribution of last year’s extreme weather events is published today. This year’s issue “explaining extreme events of 2013 – from a climate perspective” includes two papers led by researchers from our climateprediction. This is a highly-cited and influential annual publication coined in 2012 asking whether and to what extent anthropogenic climate change altered the risk of major extreme weather events of the p
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2014

Lima call for climate action- Decision

Climate Action & UNEP delivered their fifth annual Sustainable Innovation Forum on December 9 in Lima. This year’s event brought together close to 500 leaders from key United Nations bodies, governments, international & regional companies and leading non-governmental organisations (NGO's).
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

Climate Prediction for Adaptation: Who needs what?

The role of short- and long-term climate predictions in determining the success of adaptation to climate change is investigated. A simple theoretical model that captures the relationship between adaptive performance, decision structure, and prediction accuracy at different temporal scales is developed, and its implications deduced. It is shown that users who face high adjustment costs (i.e. are inflexible) depend more heavily on accurate long-term predictions than those who are able to adjust
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

UK climate change risk assessment: government report

The Government published the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA) on 25 January 2012, the first assessment of its kind for the UK and the first in a 5 year cycle. It sets out the main priorities for adaptation in the UK under 5 key themes identified in the CCRA 2012 Evidence Report - Agriculture and Forestry; Business, industries and Services; Health and Wellbeing; Natural Environment and Buildings and Infrastructure - and describes the policy context, and action already in place to tackle
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

2011 Bonn Declaration of Mayors

This declaration is the outcome document of the Mayors Adaptation Forum, which forms the Mayors segment of the Resilient Cities 2011 congress. It highlights the need to build resilience to disasters as a critical issue. It also signals the need to take appropriate action to build local capacities in reducing risk to disasters including those exacerbated by climate change.
The declaration advocates for the implementation of the following: (i) mainstreaming new adaptation and resilience standard
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

A double-resolution transient RCM climate change

A double-resolution regional experiment on hydrodynamic simulation of climate over the eastern Mediterranean (EM) region was performed using an International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste RegCM3 model. The RegCM3 was driven from the lateral boundaries by the data from the ECHAM5/MPI-OM global climate simulation performed at the MPI-M, Hamburg and based on the A1B IPCC scenario of greenhouse gases emission. Two simulation runs for the time period 1960-2060, employing spatial resolutions
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Climate Change Adaptation and Real Option Evaluation: A Case Study in Campeche, Mexico

This report illustrates the application of a (relatively) new method to guide decision making under high (and unknowable) levels of uncertainty. The approach allows for the identification of robust policy options that are economically beneficial under different scenarios and varying levels uncertainty. Option value techniques are commonly employed in the finance literature to identify investment decisions that are resilient across a spectrum of outcomes. The methods are technically advanced
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

ipcc summary for policymakers

The Working Group III Special Report on Renewa
ble Energy Sources and Climate Change
Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of th
e literature on the scientific, technological,
environmental, economic and social aspects of
the contribution of six renewable energy (RE)
sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is
intended to provide policy relevant information to
governments, intergovernmental processes and ot
her interested parties. This Summary for
Policymakers provides an ov
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2008

Climate change- vulnerability and adaptation indicators

The purpose of this Technical Paper is to rehearse some fundamental concepts surrounding the
development and delineation of adaptation indicators. It builds upon the outputs of an Expert meeting
on climate change vulnerability and adaptation indicators (Budapest, September 2008) and on the
contents of a Background Paper that was prepared for the meeting.
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