מאמרים

מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

Climate Action Now: Summary for Policymakers 2015

The Summary for Policymakers (SPM), published by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), identifies good practice policies, initiatives and actions that could be scaled up and replicated by Parties to realize significant mitigation potential in the pre-2020 period. The SPM reflects the outcomes of the associated technical expert meetings that occur under the UNFCCC. In particular, it identifies policies and initiatives in the areas of renewable energy, energy efficien
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

Climate Action Now Summary for Policymakers 2015

The Summary for Policymakers (SPM) identifies good practice policies, initiatives and actions that could be scaled up and replicated by Parties to realize significant mitigation potential in the pre-2020 period. The SPM focuses on the thematic areas and reflects the outcomes of the associated technical expert meetings that occur under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

National Security Implications of Climate-Related Risks and a Changing Climate

The report finds that climate change is a security risk, Pentagon officials said, because it degrades living conditions, human security and the ability of governments to meet the basic needs of their populations. Communities and states that already are fragile and have limited resources are significantly more vulnerable to disruption and far less likely to respond effectively and be resilient to new challenges, they added.
To reduce the national security implications of climate change, combatan
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

OECD, IEA Provide Overview of First 29 INDCs

September 2015: The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and International Energy Agency (IEA) have published a report, titled 'Overview of INDCs Submitted by 31 August 2015,' which summarizes the key information communicated in countries' intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs) submitted under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The report examines the mitigation components of INDCs that had been submitted by 31 August 2015, analyzing their clarity and transparency as well as the likely aggregate impact on greenhouse (GHG) emissions. The report was authored by Christina Hood (IEA), Liwayway Adkins (IEA)and Ellina Levina (IEA). On the transparency and clarity of the INDCs, the report assesses the nature of the goals, whether absolute emission reduction targets or relative to a baseline; and whether economy-wide or sectoral. It also looks at the conditions attached to some of the INDCs, particularly relating to the availability of international support.The report also analyzes the mitigation ambition of the INDCs, using four studies that have undertaken assessments of the INDCs.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

Nationally Self-Interested Climate Change Mitigation: A Unified Conceptual Framework

It has long been assumed that international cooperation on climate change has been slow because it is not in the interest of individual countries to act. This is based on the belief that climate change mitigation actions are net-costly for an individual state, despite the global, long-term benefit of avoiding dangerous climate change. Following this logic, individual countries all have the incentive to ‘free-ride’ on the efforts of others. This “individually rational” behaviour would result in c
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

SCOPING STUDY: MODELLING THE INTERACTION BETWEEN MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION FOR DECISION MAKING

The EU has set a target of limiting global temperature rise to 2°C above pre-industrial levels. Since the Copenhagen Accord is unlikely to results in climate change of 2°C or less, one might ask whether it is possible to reduce climate change impacts of a 3°C rise through adaptation, and whether one might consider the two degree target to be met by ‘1 degree of adaptation’. This report shows that this concept is not realistic, because different sectors and regions have very different capacities to adapt, and because of the limits to adaptation. In no sector can all of the additional impacts be offset by adaptation. For example, crops in tropical regions are already growing close to their thermal limits, and thus adaptation options would be limited if temperatures rise. Similarly, many ecosystems and coral reefs are very sensitive to small amounts of warming and could not adapt. Instead, scientists are thinking about how to use computers to better model the risks that remain in different regions and in different sectors, for different combinations of mitigation and adaptation effort.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Buildings, Climate Change, Education and Action: The role of the building sector systems in climate change mitigation

The complexity of climate change and related mitigation efforts require complex responses from many different sectors of society. Weather, water, food, health, poverty, population densities and species diversity are all manifestations of the forms and functions of climate. A major contributor to climate change is the building sector. Incrementally and cumulatively, every negative contribution to climate change detrimentally affects the life-supporting climate on Earth and thereby its inhabitants
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Financing Adaptation to Climate Change with Climate Derivatives

Natural hazard events in 2010 and 2011 such as the eruption of the volcano Eyjafjallajokull on Iceland, the heatwave in Russia, the extreme floods in northeastern Australia, and more recently the earthquake followed by a tsunami at Fukushima in Japan demonstrated the vulnerability of the networked global economy, where interruptions in supplies of important goods to industrial firms or to the food industry meant that gradually more and more sectors of the economy were affected. Further, interest in attributing the risk of damaging weather-related events to anthropogenic climate change is increasing. Hence, as climate change progresses over the coming decades, a widening range of sectors will experience both direct and indirect climate change related damages. The 2001 IPCC report stated that if greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations were stabilised, sea level would nonetheless continue to rise for hundreds of years. However, according to the latest estimates from the International Energy Agency (IEA), in 2010 GHG emissions increased by a record amount, indicating that emissions are now close to being back on a business as usual path. Therefore, adaptation is inevitable and one has to build uncertainty into the planning process resulting from the effects of the emissions that have already occurred and will still occur in the coming decades. We propose to use climate derivatives to make climate investible in order to finance mitigation and adaptation to climate change. We give a detailed explanation of the mechanism used to provide higher yield than market to long-term investors, and describe as an example two structured products designed to finance adaptation via the real options approach and the context-first approach.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Protecting the Coast

In this draft book chapter, the authors – one a former political appointee at EPA in the Obama administration, the other a senior climate change adaption adviser at EPA – discuss the law and policy of adapting to climate change in coastal areas of the United States. The most dramatic effects of climate change will occur on the coast. That’s where the twin threats of rising seas and stronger storms are already mounting the beaches. And that is where most Americans, along with billions of dollars in cultural and commercial assets, currently reside. Cities like Miami, New York, New Orleans, and Washington, D.C., are in the crosshairs. Adapting to climate change on the coast will require a plan based on a tough defense, smart adjustment, and managed retreat. This Chapter addresses the legal framework of the first two elements. Part I of this Chapter divides adaptation into helpful categories and sets out some guiding principles that we think all adaptation strategies should follow. Part II focuses on strategies geared toward resisting storm surge or floodwaters. These include “hard armoring” strategies, like dikes and levees and “soft armoring strategies,” like coastal restoration. Part III focuses on strategies of adjustment, in which use patterns or consumption patterns are modified to take into consideration climate impacts. We illustrate this type of adaptation with the example of adapting to saltwater intrusion. In Part IV, we offer concluding remarks.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Adaptation Can Help Mitigation: An Integrated Approach to Post-2012 Climate Policy

The latest round of international negotiations in Copenhagen led to a set of commitments on emission reductions which are unlikely to stabilise global warming below or around 2°C. As a consequence, in the absence of additional ambitious policy measures, adaptation will be needed to address climate-related damages. What is the role of adaptation in this setting? How is it optimally allocated across regions and time? To address these questions, this paper analyses the optimal mix of adaptation and mitigation expenditures in a cost-effective setting in which countries cooperate to achieve a long-term stabilisation target (550 CO2-eq). It uses an Integrated Assessment Model (AD-WITCH) that describes the relationships between different adaptation modes (reactive and anticipatory), mitigation, and capacity-building to analyse the optimal portfolio of adaptation measures. Results show the optimal intertemporal distribution of climate policy measures is characterised by early investments in mitigation followed by large adaptation expenditures a few decades later. Hence, the possibility to adapt does not justify postponing mitigation, although it reduces its costs. Mitigation and adaptation are thus shown to be complements rather than substitutes.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Climate policy and the Optimal balance between Mitigation, Adaptation and Unavoided Damage

It has become commonly accepted that a successful climate strategy should compound mitigation and adaptation. The accurate combination between adaptation and mitigation that can best address climate change is still an open question. This paper proposes a framework that integrates mitigation, adaptation, and climate change residual damages into an optimisation model. This set-up is used to provide some insights on the welfare maximising resource allocation between mitigation and adaptation, on their optimal timing, and on their marginal contribution to reducing vulnerability to climate change. The optimal mix between three different adaptation modes (reactive adaptation, anticipatory adaptation, and investment in innovation for adaptation purposes) within the adaptation bundle is also identified. Results suggest that the joint implementation of mitigation and adaptation is welfare improving. Mitigation should start immediately, whereas adaptation somehow later. It is also shown that in a world where the probability of climate-related catastrophic events is small and where decision makers have a high discount rate, adaptation is unambiguously the preferred option. Adaptation needs, both in developed and developing countries, will be massive, especially during the second half of the century. Most of the adaptation burden will be on developing countries. International cooperation is thus required to equally distribute the cost of adaptation.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2009

Seattle Climate Protection Initiative: Progress Report 2009

The 2009 Climate Protection Initiative Progress Report details Seattle's numerous environmental and smart growth programs such as bicycle and pedestrian improvements, new transit options, electric car infrastructure, conservation efforts and green building programs. In addition to reducing the city's contribution to global warming, Seattle will also prepare for climate change by ensuring that its infrastructure, facilities, and services are ready to adapt to the projected impacts of climate change. The report's page on adaptation reviews efforts to conserve water in anticipation of a reduction in snow pack, and highlights the creation of sea-level rise maps for use by city officials in future planning.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2009

CBD Technical Series 41: Connecting Biodiversity and Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation

The interlinkages between biodiversity, climate change, and sustainable development, have been recog - nized within both the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) as well as other international fora. Article 2 of the UNFCCC, for example, recognizes the importance of limiting climate change to a level that would allow ecosys - tems to adapt naturally to climate change. The CBD has adopted a number of decisions on biodiversity and climate change, and in 2001 formed an Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group (AHTEG) on Biodiversity and Climate Change, to consider the possible negative impacts of climate change related activities on biodiversity, identify the role of biodiversity in climate change mitigation and identify opportunities for achieving climate change and biodiversity co-benefits.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2009

Convenient Solutions to an inconvenient Truth, Ecosystem-based Approaches to Climate Change

The World Bank's Environment Department has published a report titled “Convenient Solutions to an Inconvenient Truth: Ecosystem-based Approaches to Climate Change,” which sets out an argument for including ecosystem-based approaches to mitigation and adaptation as a third and essential pillar in national strategies to address climate change. Such ecosystem-based strategies can offer cost-effective, proven and sustainable solutions contributing to, and complementing, other national and regional adaptation strategies. The report notes that three of the world's greatest challenges over the coming decades will be biodiversity loss, climate change and water shortages. It underscores that promoting further integration of ecosystem-based approaches into climate change responses and national adaptation strategies will require access to greater sources of funding, including capitalizing on opportunities to protect natural ecosystems as part of major energy and infrastructure projects. The report reviews the Bank's experience in promoting market-based financing mechanisms and instruments to expand the reach of the carbon market. New initiatives and investment funds, such as the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility, the Forest Investment Program and the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience, are highlighted as new opportunities to better protect natural capital, benefit communities and use cost-effective green technology to address the challenges of climate change.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2009

Spain, Water and Climate Change in COP 15 and Beyond: Aligning Mitigation and Adaptation through Innovation (WP)

The water/energy nexus opens a range of opportunities to align mitigation and adaptation framed by human security, which prioritises human development. In this context, Spain has an opportunity to play a leading role in realising this potential by pursuing a coherent multilevel strategy specifically designed for water and climate variability and change. Spain has a clear opportunity and, for practical policy reasons, a very clear self-interest in placing the water/energy nexus and the alignment of mitigation and adaptation high on the political agenda. The aim at COP-15 should be first for a global agreement and, as second best, a small multilateral group with Mediterranean and Latin American countries on the need to link water and climate change and variability. The second act will be the EU Presidency, where Spain can leave a legacy.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2009

Building and Climate Change, Summary for Decision-Makers

This Summary for Decision-Makers presents the current state of thinking on how the potential for greenhouse gas emission reductions in buildings can be realized. It was compiled by the Sustainable Building and Climate Initiative (SBCI), a UNEP-hosted partnership between the UN and public and private stakeholders in the Building Sector, which promotes sustainable building practices globally. The report – Buildings & Climate Change: A Summary for Decision-makers draws together the findings of three years of research by UNEP’s Sustainable Buildings & Climate Initiative (SBCI) and it’s partners. It sets out priority actions that can be taken by policy makers and industry stakeholders locally, regionally and globally to deliver economically beneficial and significant reductions in building-related greenhouse gas emissions.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2008

Canadian communities' guidebook for adaptation to climate change

The tool, created by Environment Canada and the University of British Columbia, guides users through a decision process that combines sustainable development, adaptation and mitigation. This guidebook includes Canadian case studies, examples of potential adaptation actions, and an appendix on various analytical methods used in the adaptation decision-making process.
מידע נוסף

מאמרים ופרסומים אחרונים

מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

Periodic Report Summary 1 - DYNAMIC (DYNamic feedbacks of climate impacts on current Adaptation and Mitigation Investment Choice)

The DYNAMIC (DYNamic feedbacks of climate impacts on current Adaptation and Mitigation Investment Choice) project proposes a novel framework to evaluate the economic consequences of climate change impacts and related policy responses.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

בחינת תרומת קבוצות סוציו אקונומיות בישראל לפליטות גזי חממה מצריכת מזון ביתי

לייצור המזון, במיוחד בחקלאות התעשייתית, נודעת השפעה ממשית על היקף פליטות גזי חממה באופן ישיר או עקיף. גזי חממה אלו נוצרים בכל שלבי מחזור החיים של המזון, החל משלב החקלאות ותשומותיו, דרך הייצור, הפצה, קירור, קמעונאות, הכנת המזון בבית וכלה בסילוק הפסולת.למעשה, בעוד שבמחקרים השונים קיימת הסכמה על כך שפליטות גזי חממה מייצור המזון וצריכתו מהוות חלק משמעותי מפליטות גזי החממה בעולם, המחלוקת המחקרית נסובה סביב הערכת היקף הפליטות. לדוגמא, לפי דוח של האו"ם מ- 2014 14.5% מפליטות גזי החממה כתוצאה מפעילו
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2014

Explaining Extreme Weather Events of 2013 from a Climate Perspective

The annual Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) special issue on the attribution of last year’s extreme weather events is published today. This year’s issue “explaining extreme events of 2013 – from a climate perspective” includes two papers led by researchers from our climateprediction. This is a highly-cited and influential annual publication coined in 2012 asking whether and to what extent anthropogenic climate change altered the risk of major extreme weather events of the p
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2014

Lima call for climate action- Decision

Climate Action & UNEP delivered their fifth annual Sustainable Innovation Forum on December 9 in Lima. This year’s event brought together close to 500 leaders from key United Nations bodies, governments, international & regional companies and leading non-governmental organisations (NGO's).
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

Climate Prediction for Adaptation: Who needs what?

The role of short- and long-term climate predictions in determining the success of adaptation to climate change is investigated. A simple theoretical model that captures the relationship between adaptive performance, decision structure, and prediction accuracy at different temporal scales is developed, and its implications deduced. It is shown that users who face high adjustment costs (i.e. are inflexible) depend more heavily on accurate long-term predictions than those who are able to adjust
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

UK climate change risk assessment: government report

The Government published the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA) on 25 January 2012, the first assessment of its kind for the UK and the first in a 5 year cycle. It sets out the main priorities for adaptation in the UK under 5 key themes identified in the CCRA 2012 Evidence Report - Agriculture and Forestry; Business, industries and Services; Health and Wellbeing; Natural Environment and Buildings and Infrastructure - and describes the policy context, and action already in place to tackle
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

2011 Bonn Declaration of Mayors

This declaration is the outcome document of the Mayors Adaptation Forum, which forms the Mayors segment of the Resilient Cities 2011 congress. It highlights the need to build resilience to disasters as a critical issue. It also signals the need to take appropriate action to build local capacities in reducing risk to disasters including those exacerbated by climate change.
The declaration advocates for the implementation of the following: (i) mainstreaming new adaptation and resilience standard
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

A double-resolution transient RCM climate change

A double-resolution regional experiment on hydrodynamic simulation of climate over the eastern Mediterranean (EM) region was performed using an International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste RegCM3 model. The RegCM3 was driven from the lateral boundaries by the data from the ECHAM5/MPI-OM global climate simulation performed at the MPI-M, Hamburg and based on the A1B IPCC scenario of greenhouse gases emission. Two simulation runs for the time period 1960-2060, employing spatial resolutions
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Climate Change Adaptation and Real Option Evaluation: A Case Study in Campeche, Mexico

This report illustrates the application of a (relatively) new method to guide decision making under high (and unknowable) levels of uncertainty. The approach allows for the identification of robust policy options that are economically beneficial under different scenarios and varying levels uncertainty. Option value techniques are commonly employed in the finance literature to identify investment decisions that are resilient across a spectrum of outcomes. The methods are technically advanced
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

ipcc summary for policymakers

The Working Group III Special Report on Renewa
ble Energy Sources and Climate Change
Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of th
e literature on the scientific, technological,
environmental, economic and social aspects of
the contribution of six renewable energy (RE)
sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is
intended to provide policy relevant information to
governments, intergovernmental processes and ot
her interested parties. This Summary for
Policymakers provides an ov
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2008

Climate change- vulnerability and adaptation indicators

The purpose of this Technical Paper is to rehearse some fundamental concepts surrounding the
development and delineation of adaptation indicators. It builds upon the outputs of an Expert meeting
on climate change vulnerability and adaptation indicators (Budapest, September 2008) and on the
contents of a Background Paper that was prepared for the meeting.
מידע נוסף
אתר זה אינו נתמך על ידי הדפדפן שלך אנא הורד גוגל כרום
נגישות
גודל טקסט:
א א א
שינוי צבעי האתר:
מקשי קיצור
?

לחיצה חוזרת ונשנית על המקש Tab תעביר אתכם בין הקישורים והאזורים השונים בעמוד.

הפעלת מקשי הקיצור תלויה בדפדפן שבו אתם משתמשים:

ב Internet Explorer ובChrome ובגרסאות ישנות של Firefox: לחצו על מקש Alt ועל מקש המספר או האות על-פי הרשימה. ב Firefox 3 ומעלה: לחצו על המקשים Alt + Shift + המספר או האות.

S - עבור לתוכן העמוד
1 - עמוד הבית
2 - חיפוש