מאמרים

מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2016

Medecc

Mediterranean Experts on Climate and Environmental Change
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

Overview of challenges and achievements in the climate adaptation of cities and in the Climate Proof Cities program

Despite all international, national and local initiatives to mitigate climate change, a certain degree of climate change is unavoidable. Urban environments in particular seem vulnerable to the consequences of climate change. How can cities, which are dynamic systems where most people live and work, prepare for such changes in climate? In the Netherlands, the Climate Proof Cities (CPC) research program (2010–2014) was established, aimed at: “strengthening the adaptive capacity and reducing the vu
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

Adaptation Finance Gap Update 2015

In 2014 the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) published its first global Adaptation Gap Report (AGR 2014) (UNEP, 2014), which put forward a preliminary framework for assessing adaptation gaps along with an initial assessment in three selected areas: finance, technology and knowledge. Further to the positive reception of this report, several countries requested UNEP to produce follow up reports focusing on specific adaptation gaps. In response to these requests, UNEP has commissioned a
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

The Role of the 2015 Agreement in Enhancing Adaptation to Climate Change

Adaptation responses are needed to address the existing levels of climate variability and to prepare for future climate impacts. There is wide agreement that adaptation is an important issue and would benefit from being enhanced through more effective action and better planning. The prominence of adaptation in the UNFCCC negotiations has increased, in part as the scientific evidence has become clearer that climate change is occurring and its impacts are projected to grow in future. Efforts to enhance adaptation actions and increase resilience are thus expected to play a key role in the post-2020 climate agreement to be agreed at COP21 in December 2015. This paper explores how the 2015 agreement can help to foster enhanced policies and co-ordinate planning for greater resilience and adaptation capabilities at the national level. The paper considers the technical advantages and disadvantages of selected adaptation-related concepts that have been put forward in the negotiations. These include proposals for global or national goals; developing or improving adaptation institutions or planning; enhancing information availability; and facilitating or enhancing adaptation finance. Many of these proposals have the potential to improve sub-national, national and international planning about and responses to climate adaptation. However, the actual impact of these proposals is likely to vary significantly depending on how they are implemented on the ground.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

Systematic review approaches for climate change adaptation research

Recent controversy has led to calls for increased standardization and transparency in the methods used to synthesize climate change research. Though these debates have focused largely on the biophysical dimensions of climate change, human dimensions research is equally in need of improved methodological approaches for research synthesis. Systematic review approaches, and more recently realist review methods, have been used within the health sciences for decades to guide research synthesis. Despi
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

Climate Change Risks and Adaptation: Linking Policy and Economics

Climate change is giving rise to diverse risks, ranging from changing incidences of tropical diseases to increased risks of drought, varying widely in their potential severity, frequency and predictability. Governments must integrate the management of these climate risks into policy making if they are to successfully adapt to a changing climate. Economic analysis has a vital role to play in supporting these efforts, by identifying costs and benefits and supporting decision-making for an uncertain future. However, this analysis needs to be adapted to the institutions, policies and climate risks in a given country. Building on the experience of OECD countries, this report sets out how the latest economic evidence and tools can enable better policy making for adaptation.
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2014

Canada’s Regional Adaptation Collaborative Program: Helping Canadians prepare for and adapt to climate change

Canada in a Changing Climate: Sector Perspectives on Impacts and Adaptation is a 2014 update to the 2008 science assessment report, From Impacts to Adaptation: Canada in a Changing Climate. During this time period, our understanding of climate change impacts and adaptation in Canada has increased, both as a result of new research and through practical experience. Led by Natural Resources Canada, the development of this report involved over 90 authors and 115 expert reviewers, and synthesized over 1500 recent publications.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2014

Building Resilience against Climate Effects—A Novel Framework to Facilitate Climate Readiness in Public Health Agencies

Climate change is anticipated to have several adverse health impacts. Managing these risks to public health requires an iterative approach. As with many risk management strategies related to climate change, using modeling to project impacts, engaging a wide range of stakeholders, and regularly updating models and risk management plans with new information—hallmarks of adaptive management—are considered central tenets of effective public health adaptation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has developed a framework, entitled Building Resilience Against Climate Effects, or BRACE, to facilitate this process for public health agencies. Its five steps are laid out here. Following the steps laid out in BRACE will enable an agency to use the best available science to project likely climate change health impacts in a given jurisdiction and prioritize interventions. Adopting BRACE will also reinforce public health’s established commitment to evidence-based practice and institutional learning, both of which will be central to successfully engaging the significant new challenges that climate change presents.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2014

USACE Climate Preparedness and Resilience Policy Statement

The Policy Statement says that "Mainstreaming climate change adaptation means that it will be considered at every step in the project life cycle for all USACE projects, both existing and planned… to reduce vulnerabilities and enhance the resilience of our water-resource infrastructure."The Policy Statement establishes the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Civil Works) as the agency official responsible for ensuring implementation of all aspects of this policy. Through this policy, USACE establishes the USACE Committee on Climate Preparedness an Resilience to oversee and coordinate agency-wide climate change adaptation planning and implementation. The Committee is chaired by the Chief, Engineering and Construction.
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2014

Protecting Health from Climate Change in the WHO European Region

“How far are we in the WHO European Region in implementing action to counter the health impacts of climate change?” This was the question posed to representatives of Member States in the WHO European Region of in the WHO working group on health in climate change (HIC). Twenty-two Member States provided answers to a comprehensive 2012 questionnaire that focused on eight thematic areas (governance; vulnerability, impact and adaptation (health) assessments (VIA); adaptation strategies and action plans; climate change mitigation; strengthening health systems; raising awareness and building capacity; greening health services; and sharing best practices). Strong development has been in climate change vulnerability and impact assessments, as well as strengthening health systems and awareness raising. Areas where implementation would benefit from further action are the development of national health adaptation plans, greening health systems, sharing best practices and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in other sectors. At the Fifth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health in Parma, Itatly in 2010, the European Commitment to Act on climate change and health and the European Regional Framework for Action to protect health from climate change were endorsed by the fifty-three European Member States. The results of this questionnaire present the most comprehensive assessment so far of progress made by European Member States to protect public health from climate change since the Parma Conference agreements.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2014

Climate change adaptation and water resourc emanagement: A review of the literature

This paper considers the extent and usefulness of the existing empirical literature on water supply, demand, and adaptation to climate change for incorporation into integrated assessment modeling efforts. We review the existing literature on the likely economic impacts of climate change, acting through water supply and demand effects in specific river basins, and the ability of adaptation to mitigate those impacts. Since adaptive responses will be implemented largely by local, regional, and nati
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2013

Rural Households in a Changing Climate

This paper argues that climate change poses two distinct, if related, sets of chenges for poor rural households: chenges related to the increasing frequency and severity of weather shocks and chenges related to long-term shifts in temperature, rainf patterns, water availability, and other environmental factors Within this framework, the paper examines evidence from existing empirical literature to compose an initial picture of household-level strategies for adapting to climate change in rural settings The authors find that although households possess numerous strategies for managing climate shocks and shifts, their adaptive capacity is insufficient for the task of maintaining—let alone improving—household welfare They describe the role of public policy in fortifying the ability of rural households to adapt to a changing climate
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

Conceptualizing Urban Adaptation to Climate Change: Findings from an Applied Adaptation Assessment Framework

Urban areas have particular sensitivities to climate change, and therefore adaptation to a warming planet represents a challenging new issue for urban policy makers in both the developed and developing world. Further to climate mitigation strategies implemented in various cities over the past 20 years, more recent efforts of urban management have also included actions taken to adapt to increasing temperatures, sea level and extreme events. Through the examination and comparison of seven cities, this paper identifies the various levels of administrative adaptation planning, the tools and information used in making policy choices, and the roles of governance and finance in urban adaptation to climate change. Lessons learned from these seven cases are presented to better inform the next generation of cities adapting to climate change.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

Urban adaptation to climate change in Europe: Challenges and opportunities for cities together with supportive national and European policies

From a European perspective, this report informs about the key challenges that climate change poses to cities and the need for urban adaptation. It positions the urban challenges in the larger policy frameworks provided by regional, national and European institutions and it gives a summary overview of opportunities for solutions. As such, the report addresses stakeholders involved in urban development at local and city level as well as at regional, national and European level. It aims to support policy development and decision-making across all these levels. This report takes key policy questions for specific climate-related problems, which are common for groups of cities, as the starting point of the assessment. It presents: - the most important potential impacts of climate change on cities in Europe: it characterises cities in terms of their vulnerability or adaptive capacity to climate change due to factors such as geographic position, urban design, size, wealth or governance system; - a range of adaptation responses for different spatial levels; - the challenges and opportunities for multi-level governance in the relevant policy frameworks.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

CIRCLE-2 REPORT “Climate Adaptation Research in a Larger Europe: an analysis at local and national scales”- 1st Draft version

The present report encompasses all projects uploaded in the CIRCLE-2 INFOBASE until the 31st of January 2012. The aim of this report is providing policy-makers and the involved scientific community, especially research managers, with relevant statistical information on climate change adaptation research at local and national scales over the larger Europe landscape that includes the 32 member countries of the European Environment Agency plus Israel. This report is intended as the first synthesis to regularly provide updated information on the INFOBASE content in a series of editions. Two further updated editions are foreseen within CIRCLE -2 lifetime (2014), which will involve more detailed and comprehensive analysis, considering the development of the INFOBASE itself and feedback from intended users.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

Cambridge City Council Carbon Management Plan 2011 - 2016

This updates our first Strategy and Action Plan, which covered the period from 2008-2012. The revised strategy sets out the framework for action by the City Council to manage the risks associated with climate change and contribute towards the global effort to avert future dangerous climate change by reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Key actions contained within this strategy include: Improving the energy efficiency of council-owned homes Through development of the Cambridge Local Plan, ensure that new developments meet recognized sustainability standards, ie Level 4 of the Code for Sustainable Homes for residential developments Working with the County Council to improvement cycling facilities and infrastructure in Cambridge, including cycling parking and new routes
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into the Town of Ajax Official Plan

This case study offers insight into how climate change adaptation str ategies can be main - streamed into official documents. It provides background information on how climate change is expected to affect the Town of Ajax and describes the importance of mainstreaming climate change initiatives and planning. The case study con cludes with lessons learned that may assist other Ontario communities to adopt action - oriented policies to move toward adapting to climate change.
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

International Exchange Governance of Climate Change Adaptation: National Strategies and their Implementation

Climate change adaptation is becoming more and more relevant in climate change governance . Certain geographical regions are particular ly vulnerable to a changing climate, notably t he Alpine space . F or the first time representatives of seven Alpine countries met in Ittigen (Switzerland) on May 9 , 2012 . These were 26 p articipants from Austria, France , Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Slovenia and Switzerland . The international exchange was initiated in the frame of the ETC Alpine Space project C3 - Alps (Capitalising Climate Change Knowledge for Adaptation in the Alpine Space) by the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment , supported by the Environment Agency Austria.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

SCOPING STUDY: MODELLING THE INTERACTION BETWEEN MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION FOR DECISION MAKING

The EU has set a target of limiting global temperature rise to 2°C above pre-industrial levels. Since the Copenhagen Accord is unlikely to results in climate change of 2°C or less, one might ask whether it is possible to reduce climate change impacts of a 3°C rise through adaptation, and whether one might consider the two degree target to be met by ‘1 degree of adaptation’. This report shows that this concept is not realistic, because different sectors and regions have very different capacities to adapt, and because of the limits to adaptation. In no sector can all of the additional impacts be offset by adaptation. For example, crops in tropical regions are already growing close to their thermal limits, and thus adaptation options would be limited if temperatures rise. Similarly, many ecosystems and coral reefs are very sensitive to small amounts of warming and could not adapt. Instead, scientists are thinking about how to use computers to better model the risks that remain in different regions and in different sectors, for different combinations of mitigation and adaptation effort.
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy

The Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adapta - tion Strategy has been prepared in close cooperation with the four cities of the metropolitan area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen), the Helsinki Region Environmen - tal Services Authority HSY and other municipal, regional and state level organisations. In the strategy, strategic starting points and policies with which the metropolitan area prepares for the consequences of climate change, are compiled.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

A Structural Land-Use Analysis of Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change: A Proactive Approach

This article proposes a proactive approach for analyzing agricultural adaptation to climate change wherein agricultural production technologies are regarded as potential targets of research and development (R&D) efforts. We develop a structural land-use model wherein farmers maximize profit by allocating their land among crop-technology bundles. Proactive R&D directions are derived by identifying the technological attributes through which climate change reduces overall agricultural profitability
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Adaptation to Climate Change and Economic Growth in Developing Countries

The global climate is changing, and will continue to do so even if greenhouse gas emissions are dramatically curbed. Economies are therefore faced with the challenge of adapting to climate change. This challenge is particularly important in developing countries, which, due to a combination of unfortunate geography and high sensitivity, are most vulnerable to climate change. From a macro-economic point of view, there remains much to learn about the characteristics of optimal adaptation. In partic
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Plan or React? Analysis of Adaptation Costs and Benefits Using Integrated Assessment Models

The present work seeks to examine adaptation and mitigation interaction and to assess dynamically the regional costs and benefits of adaptation. This is done by developing a framework to incorporate adaptation as a policy variable in an Integrated Assessment framework in three Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs): the Dynamic Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (DICE), the Regional Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (RICE), and the World Induced Technical Change Hybrid (WITCH) model. The modified models – AD-DICE, AD-RICE and AD-WITCH – are calibrated and used in policy simulations to examine the regional distribution of adaptation costs, the optimal policy mix between different types of adaptation, and the interactions between adaptation and mitigation. The AD-WITCH model also includes investments in “adaptive capacity”, such as social protection programmes, which can enhance the effectiveness of adaptation actions, though not directly reducing damages. By using different IAMs, this paper presents the first inter-model comparison of results on adaptation costs. Results show that the total costs of climate change are the lowest when both mitigation and adaptation are undertaken in conjunction. Any least-cost policy response to climate change will need to involve substantial amounts of mitigation efforts, investments in adaptation stock and reactive adaptation measures to limit the remaining damages.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Distributional Consequences of Climate Change Impacts on the Power Sector: Who Gains and Who Loses?

Climate change tends to negatively affect the power sector, inter alia, by causing cooling problems in power plants and impairing the water supply required for hydro-power generation. In future, when global warming is expected to increase, autonomous adaptation to climate change via international electricity markets inducing reallocations of power generation may not be sufficient to prevent supply disruptions. Furthermore, the consequent changes of supply patterns and electricity prices might cause an undesirable redistribution of wealth both between individual power suppliers and between suppliers and consumers. This study ascertains changes in European power supply patterns and electricity prices caused by ongoing global warming as well as related redistribution of wealth for different climate change scenarios. Our results confirm that autonomous adaptation in the power sector should be complemented by planned public adaptation in order to preserve energy security and to prevent undesired distributional effects.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

ADAPTING TO CLIMATE CHANGE Cost Benefits and Modelling Approaches

As part of the research carried out under the Gemina Work Package 6.2.10, this paper provides a summary and a critical survey of the methodologies and results of the literature on the economics of adaptation. We divide the literature into two broad areas of research. First, we examine the studies that analyse adaptation from a bottom-up perspective. Second, we introduce the studies that examine adaptation using a top-down approach. The first group of studies investigates cost and benefits of sectoral adaptation strategies with a geographical detail that varies from country-level to global-level. The second group gathers two different streams of literature that share macro approaches, as opposed to the micro ones of the former group. It includes both theoretical works as well as the contributions based on Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs). IAMs have originally been created to study policies aimed at limiting global warming. Recently they have also been extended to include adaptation as an alternative policy option to mitigation. This latter development has raised new issues that represent new challenges for the research community. In particular, how to make use of the vast amount of information provided by the bottom-up literature and how to integrate it into global models is paramount. Important research gaps to be filled include the improvement of the quantitative assessment of cost and benefit of adaptation needs, especially in some sectors and in developing countries and the clarification of the aggregation procedure used for scaling up bottom-up data. In addition, uncertainty and irreversibility are very marginally tackled by adaptation studies. Finally, the role of adaptation in international climate change negotiations, which is presently growing in importance, remains largely unexplored.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Assessing the costs and benefits of adaptation options: an overview of approaches

This paper outlines three methods for assessing the costs and benefits of different adaptation options. The paper aims to elaborate on the role and purpose of assessment and to explain the most commonly used assessment approaches. The paper is comprised of four sections: (i) the first section introduces the purpose of the assessment and the assessment criteria; (ii) the second section provides an overview of methodological issues and explains the three main methods of assessment; (iii) the third section gives examples of best practices and lists some lessons learned by previous assessment teams; and (v) the fifth section concludes the paper, emphasizing the need for continued assessments even after the climate change adaptation plan is in place. This publication has been developed under the Nairobi work programme on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change.
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Climate Change Adaptation for Building Designers: An Introduction

Adapting building designs for climate change is about managing the unavoidable. While there is debate around what level of adaptation is needed, there is growing awareness that design practices need to take into account predictions of increased risk and intensity of extreme events. This paper examines potential climate change effects on buildings, highlights the potential for capacity building through education, and presents examples of adaptive strategies for building design.
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS IN THE PRESENCE OF ADAPTATION

We show that adaptive measures undertaken by countries in the face of climate change, apart from directly reducing the damage caused by climate change, may also indirectly mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by increasing the stable size of international agreements on emission reductions. Moreover, we show that the more e¤ective the adaptive measure in terms of reducing the marginal damage from emissions, the larger the stable size of the international environmental agreement. In addition, we show
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Classifying knowledge on climate change impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability in Europe for informing adaptation research and decision-making: A conceptual meta-analysis

Knowledge on climate change impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability is fragmented, because it is found in disparate case studies which use inconsistent terminology and focus on distinct aspects relevant to adaptation. While large-scale syntheses such as the Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change provide a high level overview and are useful for international decision-making, there is a need for systematic and flexible access to this research-based knowledge in order to aid future adaptation research and decision-making. Against this background, we present a ‘conceptual’ meta-analysis, a novel approach to meta-analyse studies on climate change impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability in Europe. The meta-analysis results in a classification scheme for relating the diverse studies. This scheme consists of (i) a classification of studies according to the type of adaptation-relevant results they produce and (ii) a hierarchical classification of the regional and thematic context of studies. The implementation of this scheme, for example in the form of a database, overcomes some of the identified gaps of current adaptation knowledge representation. We furthermore present a quantitative analysis of the classified studies that exemplifies how the developed classification scheme can be applied to get a systematic and quantitative overview of the knowledge they contain. Thus, the conceptual meta-analysis and the classification scheme represent a first step towards a systematisation of knowledge on climate change impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability and may be seen as a useful complement to qualitative literature reviews.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Making Adaptation Count Concepts and Options for Monitoring and Evaluation of Climate Change Adaptation

This report aims to provide adaptation and development practitioners with a practical framework for developing monitoring and evaluation systems that can track the success and failure of adaptation initiatives in the development context.
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Adapting to Climate Change: Cities and the Urban Poor

Global climate change will have enormous impacts on urban areas in the developing world. The known and growing effects of climate change –increased temperatures, rising seas, and increased incidence of severe storms –will be especially significant for cities due to the location of many along the coast ,the population and capital assets at risk, and the important role of port cities in national economies. This paper explores some of the emerging issues that cities in the developing world confront as they begin to develop plans and strategies to adapt to the effects of global climate change. The emphasis is on low-income populations, both those now settled in cities and those still to migrate from rural areas. In some instances, this migration is due to reduced agricultural productivity, itself a product of global climate change. The urban poor are vulnerable because of where they live and the condition of their shelter. Yet their low incomes, poor access to information, and lack of market alternatives limit their ability to move to safer environments.
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

The Value of Green Infrastructure for Urban Climate Adaptation

In this paper the Center for Clean Air Policy (CCAP) provides information on the costs and benefits of “green” infrastructure solutions for bolstering local adaptation to climate change. The report provides examples of a variety of approaches to incorporating green practices as well as the benefits to urban communities, such as improvements in land value, quality of life, public health, hazard mitigation, and regulatory compliance. A selection of green infrastructure solutions are evaluated for their performance and benefits, discerning their value for climate adaptation. Eco-roofs, green alleys and streets, and urban forestry techniques are examined in detail along with their respective economic cost and benefits. In addition, the report describes managerial, institutional, and market-based approaches to climate resilience, in which local governments can use incentives to lower climate risks and encourage adaptive behavior. Select examples of green infrastructure costs, performance, and benefits from pioneering cities are provided in detail as well.
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Adaptation to Climate Change: Policy instruments for adaptation to climate change in big European cities and metropolitan areas

This is a very concise, analytic and well-structured study elaborated by a joint group of partners (Ecologic Institute, together with AEA, ICLEI, and REC), which evaluated existing best practices based on empirical research of twenty European cities to provide guidance to local and regional administrators and interested stakeholders. The study provides recommendations for city administrations that wish to design, implement and evaluate adaptation strategies and key measures to address specific climate change challenges. As far as possible, these measures are matched with the specific characteristics of a city.
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Managing risks and increasing resilience: the Mayor’s climate change adaptation strategy

Managing risks and increasing resilience is the Mayor’s climate change adaptation strategy for London. It details his strategic approach to managing the climate risks we face now and in the future in order to maintain London as one of the best big cities in the world.Our climate is changing and further changes are expected. Together, we need to prepare for warmer, wetter winters, hotter, drier summers and more frequent extreme weather. Timely action will bring positive benefits, including jobs, investment, economic security and an improved quality of life. If we don’t act, we are likely to face an increasing risk of floods, droughts and heat waves.Managing risks and increasing resilience looks at who and what is vulnerable to extreme weather today, considers how climate change will affect the existing climate risks, or create new risks or opportunities in the future and provides a framework for action.
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Technologies for Climate Change Adaptation – The Water Sector

This guidebook aims to provide expert information on the technologies most relevant for climate change adaptation in the water sector in developing countries.It is meant to be a practical tool for use by a broad range of stakeholders, including those in governmental agencies, water utilities, community water boards, non-governmental organizations, and private sector companies.The guidebook first reviews the projected impacts of climate change on the water sector. It then addresses the role of adaptation in the water sector and six typologies under which available strategies are categorized.Eleven technologies and practices are given detailed treatment in this guidebook and four others are covered briefly. While these do not constitute all of the adaptation technologies available in the water sector, they do represent many of the most important adaptation technologies for developing countries
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change: Learning from Impact and Vulnerability Literature

In the international arena, two broad policy responses have emerged to deal with negative impact of climate change, i.e. 'mitigation' and 'adaptation'. Though adaptation is required to reduce unmitigated climatic impact, the ongoing international climate conventions and scholarly studies have given less emphasis to it in comparison to mitigation. In climate change economics literature, the notion adaptation has been used in two discourses: 'impact' and 'vulnerability', and both are different in the context of not only addressing research question but also assessing adaptive capacity. Assuming adaptation as 'static or end-point' approach, the impact studies have estimated potential impact cost, which involves both adaptation and residual or un-mitigated impact cost, based on projected emission scenarios now and forever. The vulnerability studies, in contrast, have presumed adaptation as 'starting-point' approach, and assessed risk of an entity within the broader social, economic, political and environmental context. In the context of adaptation, the former (impact) assumes clairvoyant farmer hypothesis, and hence, suggests climate specific adaptations. The later (vulnerability), on the other hand, views adaptation as the current ability of a person to cope with risk and secure livelihoods, which in particular assessing vulnerability, who adapts and his/her risk attitude behaviour, and process of occurring adaptations. Though the purpose of both is to reduce negative impact through adaptation, the present study surveys both the sets of studies based on two questions: how the notion of adaptation is being articulated and to what extent their findings are useful for implementing and facilitating adaptations.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Market mechanisms for adaptation to climate change - lessons from mitigation and a pathway to implementation

Such instruments should be as efficient as possible, and in other policy fields market-based mechanisms have been used to maximize efficiency. So far however, there is almost no experience with adaptation taxes, tradable project-based offsets or tradable allowances, whereas climate change mitigation has been a field where such instruments have been widely applied during the last two decades. While generally, market-based instruments for mitigation can be seen as successful, several key lessons have been learned. (1) Pilot phases are important to test an instrument and to correct design flaws.(2) Distortions by lobbies can lead to adverse distributional effects. Regulatory uncertainty reduces the efficiency gains. (3) Transaction costs can form a significant barrier. (4) Monitoring and independent verification are key to prevent fraud. These lessons should be taken into account in the design of market mechanisms for adaptation, and we derive requirements for that. Finally, we discuss a concrete pathway to establishing market mechanisms for adaptation and define priorities for further research and possible pilot implementation, differentiating by types of adaptation.
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2011

Reducing the risks posed by natural hazards and climate change: the need for a participatory dialogue between the scientific community and policy makers

In the last two decades we witnessed a progressive shift in the approach towards the reduction of the impact of natural hazards. From a general reactive approach, focusing on strengthening disaster response mechanisms, we have moved to proactive approaches. There has been recognition that each element of society, from public institutions to private sector, from community-based organizations to every single individual, can make a difference by acting before disasters strike to reduce the associated risks of human and economic losses. This proactive approach can be summarized in three words: Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). This paper, which serves as an introduction to the special issue of Environment Science & Policy on climate change impact on water-related disasters, intends to provide readers with an overview of the main policy frameworks addressing DRR internationally and in Europe. Further, it aims to offer some “food for thought” on the underlying opportunities we have to enhance the resilience of our communities towards the risks posed by weather-related hazards. It stresses the importance of governance of risks, which starts from an effective dialogue between the scientific community and the policy makers: those who have the responsibility to decide on the most cost-effective interventions to address climate change adaptation and risk reduction.
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2011

Protecting the Coast

In this draft book chapter, the authors – one a former political appointee at EPA in the Obama administration, the other a senior climate change adaption adviser at EPA – discuss the law and policy of adapting to climate change in coastal areas of the United States. The most dramatic effects of climate change will occur on the coast. That’s where the twin threats of rising seas and stronger storms are already mounting the beaches. And that is where most Americans, along with billions of dollars in cultural and commercial assets, currently reside. Cities like Miami, New York, New Orleans, and Washington, D.C., are in the crosshairs. Adapting to climate change on the coast will require a plan based on a tough defense, smart adjustment, and managed retreat. This Chapter addresses the legal framework of the first two elements. Part I of this Chapter divides adaptation into helpful categories and sets out some guiding principles that we think all adaptation strategies should follow. Part II focuses on strategies geared toward resisting storm surge or floodwaters. These include “hard armoring” strategies, like dikes and levees and “soft armoring strategies,” like coastal restoration. Part III focuses on strategies of adjustment, in which use patterns or consumption patterns are modified to take into consideration climate impacts. We illustrate this type of adaptation with the example of adapting to saltwater intrusion. In Part IV, we offer concluding remarks.
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2011

Adaptation Can Help Mitigation: An Integrated Approach to Post-2012 Climate Policy

The latest round of international negotiations in Copenhagen led to a set of commitments on emission reductions which are unlikely to stabilise global warming below or around 2°C. As a consequence, in the absence of additional ambitious policy measures, adaptation will be needed to address climate-related damages. What is the role of adaptation in this setting? How is it optimally allocated across regions and time? To address these questions, this paper analyses the optimal mix of adaptation and mitigation expenditures in a cost-effective setting in which countries cooperate to achieve a long-term stabilisation target (550 CO2-eq). It uses an Integrated Assessment Model (AD-WITCH) that describes the relationships between different adaptation modes (reactive and anticipatory), mitigation, and capacity-building to analyse the optimal portfolio of adaptation measures. Results show the optimal intertemporal distribution of climate policy measures is characterised by early investments in mitigation followed by large adaptation expenditures a few decades later. Hence, the possibility to adapt does not justify postponing mitigation, although it reduces its costs. Mitigation and adaptation are thus shown to be complements rather than substitutes.
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2011

Total Costs and Budgetary Effects of Adaptation to Climate Change: An Assessment for the European Union

Adaptation to climate change is gaining increasing relevance in the public debate of climate policy. However, detailed and regionalised cost estimates as a basis for cost-benefit-analyses are rare. We compose available cost estimates for adaptation in Europe, and in particular Germany, Finland and Italy. Furthermore, a systematic overview on fiscal aspects of adaptation is provided, with focus on budgetary effects of adaptation in the different impact sectors. Combining cost estimates, considerations on fiscal aspects and governmental interventions in adaptation processes, we present data-based guesses of public adaptation costs in the EU, divided by impact sectors. The findings show an expectedly large public burden in the adaptation of transport infrastructure and coastal protection, while high adaptation costs in the agriculture sector are predominantly private. The change in energy demand may well lead to a significant decrease in public expenditure. Considering the regional heterogeneity of adaptation measures and the high uncertainty of quantitative adaptation analyses, further research in the form of bottom-up-studies is needed.
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2011

Adapting urban water systems to climate change

ICLEI, UNESCO-IHE and IWA have authored, as part of the ‘SWITCH – Managing Water for the City of the Future’ project, a handbook on adapting urban water systems to climate change. The handbook aims to fill a gap in the adaptation field: while a lot of information is available about various adaptation topics, there is a lack of guidance for decision makers at the local level working on urban water who wish to proactively prepare for and adapt to climate change. The handbook first examines some of the key areas of vulnerability to climate change within urban water systems. The handbook also proposes flexible and future-oriented urban water planning as a means to address climate change and implement adaptation actions. Finally, the handbook presents case studies of cities throughout the world that have already planned for adaptation or implemented specific actions aiming at increasing their resilience to climate change.
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2011

Cities and Climate Change: Global Report on Human Settlements 2011

Cities and Climate Change reviews the linkages between urbanization and climate change, two of the greatest challenges currently facing humanity in the 21st Century, and whose effects are converging in dangerous ways. It illustrates the significant contribution of urban areas to climate change while at the same time highlighting the potentially devastating effects of climate change on urban populations.It reviews policy responses, strategies and practices that are emerging in urban areas to mitigate and adapt to climate change, as well as their potential achievements and constraints. In conclusion, the report argues that urban areas have a pivotal role in both climate change mitigation and adaptation and identifies strategies and approaches for strengthening this role.
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2011

Climate Change Adaptation and Real Option Evaluation: A Case Study in Campeche, Mexico

This report illustrates the application of a (relatively) new method to guide decision making under high (and unknowable) levels of uncertainty. The approach allows for the identification of robust policy options that are economically beneficial under different scenarios and varying levels uncertainty. Option value techniques are commonly employed in the finance literature to identify investment decisions that are resilient across a spectrum of outcomes. The methods are technically advanced
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2011

Lessons Learned on Local Climate Adaptation from the Urban Leaders Adaptation Initiative

This report summarizes the main findings of the Center for Clean Air Policy (CCAP)'s Urban Leaders Adaptation Initiative. In partnership with government leaders from ten large counties and cities, CCAP launched the Initiative to foster local climate adaptation efforts and to develop and implement climate resilient strategies. This report provides an assessment of general lessons learned over the course of the project and thoughts about future directions for local climate adaptation.
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Financing Adaptation to Climate Change with Climate Derivatives

Natural hazard events in 2010 and 2011 such as the eruption of the volcano Eyjafjallajokull on Iceland, the heatwave in Russia, the extreme floods in northeastern Australia, and more recently the earthquake followed by a tsunami at Fukushima in Japan demonstrated the vulnerability of the networked global economy, where interruptions in supplies of important goods to industrial firms or to the food industry meant that gradually more and more sectors of the economy were affected. Further, interest in attributing the risk of damaging weather-related events to anthropogenic climate change is increasing. Hence, as climate change progresses over the coming decades, a widening range of sectors will experience both direct and indirect climate change related damages. The 2001 IPCC report stated that if greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations were stabilised, sea level would nonetheless continue to rise for hundreds of years. However, according to the latest estimates from the International Energy Agency (IEA), in 2010 GHG emissions increased by a record amount, indicating that emissions are now close to being back on a business as usual path. Therefore, adaptation is inevitable and one has to build uncertainty into the planning process resulting from the effects of the emissions that have already occurred and will still occur in the coming decades. We propose to use climate derivatives to make climate investible in order to finance mitigation and adaptation to climate change. We give a detailed explanation of the mechanism used to provide higher yield than market to long-term investors, and describe as an example two structured products designed to finance adaptation via the real options approach and the context-first approach.
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2011

International environmental agreements in the presence of adaptation

We show that adaptive measures undertaken by countries in the face of climate change, apart from directly reducing the damage caused by climate change, may also indirectly mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by increasing the stable size of international agreements on emission reductions. Moreover, we show that the more effective the adaptive measure in terms of reducing the marginal damage from emissions, the larger the stable size of the international environmental agreement. In addition, we show that larger coalitions, in the presence of adaptation, may lead to lower global emission levels and higher welfare.
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2010

Plan or React? Analysis of Adaptation Costs and Benefits Using Integrated Assessment Models

Financing for adaptation is a core element in the ongoing international negotiations on climate change. This has motivated a number of recent global estimates of adaptation costs. While important from an agenda setting perspective, many of these estimates nevertheless have a number of limitations. They are typically static (i.e. estimated for one specific year), do not differentiate between investments in various types of adaptation or quantify the resulting benefits, and are delinked from policies and investments in greenhouse gas mitigation.
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2010

Climate Protection Commitment Heidelberg

This is the result of cooperation. On the one hand, the city provides not only a hotline to answer any questions residents may have concerning cleanliness or garbage, but also a comprehensive and reliable garbage disposal and city cleaning service with comparatively low charges. On the other hand, the residents demonstrate the strength of their commitment in community action events, such as the spring clean and by carefully separating their garbage. This, in turn, contributes to sustainable recycling: Heidelberg's organic waste is turned into high-quality compost.
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2010

Urban Regions: Vulnerabilities, Vulnerability Assessments by Indicators and Adaptation Options for Climate Change Impacts - Scoping Study -

In April 2009, the European Commission published the White Paper “Adapting to climate change: Towards a European framework for action”. A key aim for the first phase of this framework is developing the general knowledge base in order to inform stakeholders on appropriate adaptation actions at suitable
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Climate change, environmental degradation and migration

Climate change will have a progressively increasing impact on environmental degradation and environmentally dependent socio-economic systems with potential to cause substantial population displacement. The key concerns in Less Developed Countries (LDCs) will include serious threats to food security and health, considerable economic decline, inundation of coastal areas, and degradation of land and fresh water resources (Reuveny in Polit Geogr, 2007). The relationship between environmental change and potential humanitarian crises has been captured by: McGregor (Geography and refugees: patterns and processes of change, Belhaven Press, London, pp 159–70, 1993), Kibreab (Environment and Population Change, International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, Liège, 1994), Kibreab (Disasters 21(1):20–38, 1997), Myers (Bioscience 43:752–761, 1993), Myers and Kent (Environmental exodus: an emergent crisis in the global arena, Climate Institute, Washington, DC, 1995), Black (New Issues in Refugee Research, Working Paper no. 34, 2001), Lee (Environmental matters: conflict, refugees and international relations, World Human Development Institute Press, Seoul and Tokyo, 2001), Castles (Environmental Change and Induced Migration: Making Sense of the Debate Working Paper No. 70, 2002), Christian Aid (Human tide: the real migration crisis, Christian Aid, London, 2007), and Massey et al. (http://​www.​psc.​isr.​umich.​edu/​pubs/​pdf/​rr07-615.​pdf, 2007). However, we know little about the interplay between environmental change and stresses on ecological systems, resulting socio-economic vulnerability and potential outcomes in terms of population displacement or induced migration. So far these relationships are poorly conceptualized, lack systematic investigation, and are reduced to simplistic causal explanations. This leads to misleading conclusions that deny the complex multivariate processes—environmental, political, social, and economic— which are the root causes of environmentally induced migration and/or conflict. When people are faced with severe environmental degradation they have one of three options: (1) stay and adapt to mitigate the effects; (2) stay, do nothing and accept a lower quality of life; or (3) leave the affected area. The process of movement and migration is usually subject to a complex set of push and pull forces, where push forces relate to the source area while pull factors relate to the destination. These forces are in constant flux, as much as environmental change, and interact with socio-economic and political conditions including state or government decision making powers, which can tip the balance at any point by either denying movement or the right to settle elsewhere. The paper focuses on how environmental change and environmental hazards contribute to the migration by exploring the mechanisms through which vulnerability and migration are linked—via livelihoods, relocation policies, and other factors. The paper begins by outlining important definitions of what is environmentally induced migration. The paper also considers the question of whether migration is a process that reduces or increases vulnerability. The paper draws on multidisciplinary literature including ecology, environment, and climate change; sociology of migration; anthropology of displacement; and economics; but also on preliminary from various case studies in Egypt, Vietnam, and Mozambique.
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

The Cost to Developing Countries of Adapting to Climate Change New Methods and Estimates

This document is an initial study report focusing on the first of these two objectives. It estimates the costs for major economic sectors under two alternative future climate scenarios – one wetter and one drier. It places particular emphasis on improving understanding of the impacts, sensitivity and vulnerability of the poor and most vulnerable social groups, of what adaptation would imply for their livelihoods, and what forms of public support are needed to facilitate such changes. It is intended to help policymakers cost, prioritize, sequence, and integrate specific adaptation strategies within the context of development plans and budgets.
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2010

Climate policy and the Optimal balance between Mitigation, Adaptation and Unavoided Damage

It has become commonly accepted that a successful climate strategy should compound mitigation and adaptation. The accurate combination between adaptation and mitigation that can best address climate change is still an open question. This paper proposes a framework that integrates mitigation, adaptation, and climate change residual damages into an optimisation model. This set-up is used to provide some insights on the welfare maximising resource allocation between mitigation and adaptation, on their optimal timing, and on their marginal contribution to reducing vulnerability to climate change. The optimal mix between three different adaptation modes (reactive adaptation, anticipatory adaptation, and investment in innovation for adaptation purposes) within the adaptation bundle is also identified. Results suggest that the joint implementation of mitigation and adaptation is welfare improving. Mitigation should start immediately, whereas adaptation somehow later. It is also shown that in a world where the probability of climate-related catastrophic events is small and where decision makers have a high discount rate, adaptation is unambiguously the preferred option. Adaptation needs, both in developed and developing countries, will be massive, especially during the second half of the century. Most of the adaptation burden will be on developing countries. International cooperation is thus required to equally distribute the cost of adaptation.
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2010

Europe adapts to climate change: Comparing national adaptation strategies

For the last two decades, European climate policy has focused almost exclusively on mitigation of climate change. It was only well after the turn of the century, with impacts of climate change increasingly being observed, that adaptation was added to the policy agenda and EU Member States started to develop National Adaptation Strategies (NASs). This paper reviews seven National Adaptation Strategies that were either formally adopted or under development by Member States at the end of 2008. The strategies are analysed under the following six themes. Firstly, the factors motivating and facilitating the development of a national adaptation strategy. Secondly, the scientific and technical support needed for the development and implementation of such a strategy. Thirdly, the role of the strategy in information, communication and awareness-raising of the adaptation issue. Fourthly, new or existing forms of multi-level governance to implement the proposed actions. Fifthly, how the strategy addresses integration and coordination with other policy domains. Finally, how the strategy suggests the implementation and how the strategy is evaluated. The paper notes that the role of National Adaptation Strategies in the wider governance of adaptation differs between countries but clearly benchmarks a new political commitment to adaptation at national policy levels. However, we also find that in most cases approaches for implementing and evaluating the strategies are yet to be defined. The paper concludes that even though the strategies show great resemblance in terms of topics, methods and approaches, there are many institutional challenges, including multi-level governance and policy integration issues, which can act as considerable barriers in future policy implementation.
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2010

Water access, water scarcity, and climate change

This article investigates the approaches of the various discourses operating in the water sector and how they address the issues of scarcity and equitable access under projected climate change impacts. Little synergy exists between the different approaches dealing with these issues. Whilst being a sustainable development and water resources management issue, a holistic view of access, scarcity and the projected impacts of climate change is not prevalent in these discourses. The climate change discourse too does not adequately bridge the gap between these issues. The projected impacts of climate change are likely to exacerbate the problems of scarcity and equitable access unless appropriate adaptation strategies are adopted and resilience is built. The successful delivery of accessible water services under projected climate change impacts therefore lies with an extension of the adaptive water management approach to include equitable access as a key driver.
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2010

Climate Change and Health Research in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

Anthropologically induced climate change, caused by an increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, is an emerging threat to human health. Consequences of climate change may affect the prevalence of various diseases and environmental and social maladies that affect population health. In this article, we reviewed the literature on climate change and health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. This region already faces numerous humanitarian crises, from conflicts to natural hazards and a high burden of disease. Climate change is likely to aggravate these emergencies, necessitating a strengthening of health systems and capacities in the region. However, the existing literature on climate change from the region is sparse and informational gaps stand in the way of regional preparedness and adaptation. Further research is needed to assess climatic changes and related health impacts in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Such knowledge will allow countries to identify preparedness vulnerabilities, evaluate capacity to adapt to climate change, and develop adaptation strategies to allay the health impacts of climate change.
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2010

Adaptation to climate change in Sweden: knowledge, policy and practice

Our research explores how science can help Swedish stakeholders to assess adaptation needs and options. In our research, meetings between scientists and stakeholders revealed a positive attitude to using scientific knowledge in adaptation decision-making. The study suggests that, to support decision-making, there is a need for scientific results (notably climate change and impact scenarios) to be presented in a more user-friendly fashion, as well as for greater informal interaction between scientists, practitioners and policymakers.In particular, there is a need for results to show shorter time horizons, provide clear graphics, and offer more locally relevant information.
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2010

Adapting to Climate Change: An Introduction for Canadian Municipalities

This book is an update and expansion of the document published in 2006 by the Canadian Climate Impacts and Adaptation Research Network (Mehdi, 2006) under the same title. It provides municipal decision-makers and staff with information to help them understand the need for climate change adaptation and how to put adaptation measures in place. The book also refers to other guides that can help municipalities identify and address risks and opportunities, and to case studies that illustrate how municipalities of varying sizes from across the country are taking action now.
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2010

Adapting to Climate Change: A Risk-based Guide for Local Governments

Using the Canadian national standard framework for risk management, this guide is intended to assist local and regional governments (as well as health officials, emergency managers and businesses) in understanding the risks related to climate change and how to manage predicted impacts. The guide provides an overview of climate trends and projections in BC and the local government planning context. The document focuses primarily on the steps in the risk management process. Briefly summarized, the steps are: getting started; preliminary analysis; risk estimation; risk evaluation; risk controls and adaptation decisions; and implementing and monitoring. The guide stresses the importance of communication and documentation throughout all steps.
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2010

Stress gradients select for ecotype formation in Cicer judaicum Boiss., a wild relative of domesticated chickpea

he investigation of plant adaptive strategies has been enhanced by the advent of high resolution climate models facilitating greatly improved fine-scale habitat characterization. We have used this approach in the evaluation of C. judaicum Boiss., an annual wild relative of chickpea. 54 accessions from 12 Israeli populations representing three separate habitats differing in temperature and terminal drought stress intensity were evaluated in a common garden experiment, measuring phenology and grow
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Stress gradients select for ecotype formation in Cicer judaicum Boiss., a wild relative of domesticated chickpea

he investigation of plant adaptive strategies has been enhanced by the advent of high resolution climate models facilitating greatly improved fine-scale habitat characterization. We have used this approach in the evaluation of C. judaicum Boiss., an annual wild relative of chickpea. 54 accessions from 12 Israeli populations representing three separate habitats differing in temperature and terminal drought stress intensity were evaluated in a common garden experiment, measuring phenology and grow
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מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Adapting to climate change in Australia

The Australian Government's position paper, Adapting to Climate Change in Australia, sets out the Government's vision for adapting to the impacts of climate change and proposes practical steps to realise that vision. It outlines the Australian Government's role in adaptation, which includes building community resilience and establishing the right conditions for people to adapt; taking climate change into account in the management of Commonwealth assets and programs; providing sound scientific information; and leading national reform. The position paper identifies six national priority areas for action: water, coasts, infrastructure, natural ecosystems, natural disaster management, and agriculture. This paper sets out the Australian Government's vision for adapting to the impacts of climate change and proposes practical steps to realise this vision.
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2010

Adapting to climate change in Australia —An Australian Government position paper

The Australian Government's position paper, Adapting to Climate Change in Australia, sets out the Government's vision for adapting to the impacts of climate change and proposes practical steps to realise that vision. It outlines the Australian Government's role in adaptation, which includes building community resilience and establishing the right conditions for people to adapt; taking climate change into account in the management of Commonwealth assets and programs; providing sound scientific information; and leading national reform. The position paper identifies six national priority areas for action: water, coasts, infrastructure, natural ecosystems, natural disaster management, and agriculture. This paper sets out the Australian Government's vision for adapting to the impacts of climate change and proposes practical steps to realise this vision.
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2009

CBD Technical Series 41: Connecting Biodiversity and Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation

The interlinkages between biodiversity, climate change, and sustainable development, have been recog - nized within both the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) as well as other international fora. Article 2 of the UNFCCC, for example, recognizes the importance of limiting climate change to a level that would allow ecosys - tems to adapt naturally to climate change. The CBD has adopted a number of decisions on biodiversity and climate change, and in 2001 formed an Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group (AHTEG) on Biodiversity and Climate Change, to consider the possible negative impacts of climate change related activities on biodiversity, identify the role of biodiversity in climate change mitigation and identify opportunities for achieving climate change and biodiversity co-benefits.
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2009

Biodiversity Management in the face of Climate Change: a review of 22 years of recommendations

Climate change creates new challenges for biodiversity conservation. Species ranges and ecological dynamics are already responding to recent climate shifts, and current reserves will not continue to support all species they were designed to protect. These problems are exacerbated by other global changes. Scholarly articles recommending measures to adapt conservation to climate change have proliferated over the last 22 years. We systematically reviewed this literature to explore what potential solutions it has identified and what consensus and direction it provides to cope with climate change. Several consistent recommendations emerge for action at diverse spatial scales, requiring leadership by diverse actors. Broadly, adaptation requires improved regional institutional coordination, expanded spatial and temporal perspective, incorporation of climate change scenarios into all planning and action, and greater effort to address multiple threats and global change drivers simultaneously in ways that are responsive to and inclusive of human communities. However, in the case of many recommendations the how, by whom, and under what conditions they can be implemented is not specified. We synthesize recommendations with respect to three likely conservation pathways: regional planning; site-scale management; and modification of existing conservation plans. We identify major gaps, including the need for (1) more specific, operational examples of adaptation principles that are consistent with unavoidable uncertainty about the future; (2) a practical adaptation planning process to guide selection and integration of recommendations into existing policies and programs; and (3) greater integration of social science into an endeavor that, although dominated by ecology, increasingly recommends extension beyond reserves and into human-occupied landscapes.
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2009

Spain, Water and Climate Change in COP 15 and Beyond: Aligning Mitigation and Adaptation through Innovation (WP)

The water/energy nexus opens a range of opportunities to align mitigation and adaptation framed by human security, which prioritises human development. In this context, Spain has an opportunity to play a leading role in realising this potential by pursuing a coherent multilevel strategy specifically designed for water and climate variability and change. Spain has a clear opportunity and, for practical policy reasons, a very clear self-interest in placing the water/energy nexus and the alignment of mitigation and adaptation high on the political agenda. The aim at COP-15 should be first for a global agreement and, as second best, a small multilateral group with Mediterranean and Latin American countries on the need to link water and climate change and variability. The second act will be the EU Presidency, where Spain can leave a legacy.
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2009

Seattle Climate Protection Initiative: Progress Report 2009

The 2009 Climate Protection Initiative Progress Report details Seattle's numerous environmental and smart growth programs such as bicycle and pedestrian improvements, new transit options, electric car infrastructure, conservation efforts and green building programs. In addition to reducing the city's contribution to global warming, Seattle will also prepare for climate change by ensuring that its infrastructure, facilities, and services are ready to adapt to the projected impacts of climate change. The report's page on adaptation reviews efforts to conserve water in anticipation of a reduction in snow pack, and highlights the creation of sea-level rise maps for use by city officials in future planning.
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2009

2009 California Climate Adaptation Strategy

In 2009, California adopted a statewide Climate Adaptation Strategy (CAS) that summarizes climate change impacts and recommends adaptation strategies across seven sectors: Public Health, Biodiversity and Habitat, Oceans and Coastal Resources, Water, Agriculture, Forestry, and Transportation and Energy. The 2009 CAS was the first of its kind in the usage of downscaled climate models to more accurately assess statewide climate impacts as a basis for providing guidance for establishing actions that prepare, prevent, and respond to the effects of climate change.
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2008

Canadian communities' guidebook for adaptation to climate change

The tool, created by Environment Canada and the University of British Columbia, guides users through a decision process that combines sustainable development, adaptation and mitigation. This guidebook includes Canadian case studies, examples of potential adaptation actions, and an appendix on various analytical methods used in the adaptation decision-making process.
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2008

Chicago Climate Action Plan - Strategy 5: Adaptation

Chicagoans have long prized the city’s spacious green parks and tree-shaded streets. In warmer months, when cooling breezes blow off the lake, people crowd the city’s ball fields, summer festivals and open-air concerts. Even the bracing change of seasons is a source of civic pride. Yet as many who have already dedicated themselves to climate issues know, our familiar cycle of weather my soon become a dim memory. The earth responds slowly to changes in atmospheric gases. For that reason, over the next few decades, we will continue to face the consequences of our heat-trapping gas emissions from decades past. Aggressive action will reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the future. We must also take action by adapting to changes that are already happening and preparing for the changes ahead. The previous sections have outlined mitigation strategies – key elements of the plan to reduce the likelihood of adverse conditions. Adaptation, the courses of action detailed here, will help reduce the impact of the changes that can be expected even if we greatly reduce emissions.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2008

Adaptation to climate change in the European Union efficiency vs. equity considerations

EU climate policy is based on GHG emissions reduction (mitigation) coupled with measures aimed at responding efficiently to the unavoidable consequences of climate change (adaptation). However, as the European Commission recently stated in its Green Paper on adaptation in Europe, there is still a need to develop an overall EU adaptation strategy. Moreover, such a strategy should take into consideration both efficiency and equity concerns. In this article we propose a framework for EU adaptation policy that addresses both concerns and which enables a transparent decision-making process. In the proposed scheme universal weightings of the individual policy objectives have to be agreed upon prior to actual decision-making.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2007

Assessing the robustness of adaptation decisions to climate change uncertainties: A case study on water resources management in the East of England

Projections of future climate change are plagued with uncertainties, causing difficulties for planners taking decisions on adaptation measures. This paper presents an assessment framework that allows the identification of adaptation strategies that are robust (i.e. insensitive) to climate change uncertainties. The framework is applied to a case study of water resources management in the East of England, more specifically to the Anglian Water Services’ 25 year Water Resource Plan (WRP). The paper presents a local sensitivity analysis (a ‘one-at-a-time’ experiment) of the various elements of the modelling framework (e.g., emissions of greenhouse gases, climate sensitivity and global climate models) in order to determine whether or not a decision to adapt to climate change is sensitive to uncertainty in those elements. Water resources are found to be sensitive to uncertainties in regional climate response (from general circulation models and dynamical downscaling), in climate sensitivity and in climate impacts. Aerosol forcing and greenhouse gas emissions uncertainties are also important, whereas uncertainties from ocean mixing and the carbon cycle are not. Despite these large uncertainties, Anglian Water Services’ WRP remains robust to the climate change uncertainties sampled because of the adaptation options being considered (e.g. extension of water treatment works), because the climate model used for their planning (HadCM3) predicts drier conditions than other models, and because ‘one-at-a-time’ experiments do not sample the combination of different extremes in the uncertainty range of parameters. This research raises the question of how much certainty is required in climate change projections to justify investment in adaptation measures, and whether such certainty can be delivered.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2007

A Survey of Climate Change Adaptation Planning

The report is divided into two sections: (i) adaptation planning guidebooks and frameworks, and (ii) adaptation planning efforts that are currently underway. This introductory survey report is designed to provide a “road map” to some of this information. It makes no claim to be comprehensive or to represent best practices on adaptation. Rather, the goal in producing this survey is to help generate discussion and the sharing of ideas, efforts and lessons learned across the adaptation community.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2007

Developing a Municipal Adaptation Plan (MAP) for climate change: the city of Cape Town

Climate change increases the likelihood of extreme weather events such as droughts, floods and heat waves, as well as more gradual changes in temperature and precipitation. The city of Cape Town (South Africa) is at risk from projected climate-induced warming and changes in rainfall variability. This makes resource management and infrastructure planning more challenging and increases the urgency of the need to adapt city-level operations to both current climate variability and future climate change. To date, however, the main focus of adaptation planning has been at the nationallevel, and has not adequately addressed municipal-scale adaptation. This paper presents and discusses an overarching framework that would facilitate the development of a Municipal Adaptation Plan (MAP). The example of the city of Cape Town illustrates some of the sector-level assessments and potential climate threats, as well as resource mobilization issues that need to be addressed during the development and implementation of a MAP. In conclusion, a number of barriers to developing a MAP are discussed.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2007

Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Water, Land-use and Economic Return in Agriculture

We develop a regional scale economic model for analyzing climate-change impacts on agriculture. Non-linear production functions describing yield responses to land allocation, water application and water salinity are integrated into a mathematical programming model. The responses to water quantity and quality are estimated by the use of scientific-based models simulating equilibrium in the root zone among plant's water uptake, soil salinity and soil's water content. Internalization of land allocation among crops is based on Howitt's PMP calibration approach (1995). The model, therefore, enables assessment of climate-change impacts on optimal agricultural management, where adaptation is considered endogenously with respect to both the extensive and intensive margins. The model is applied to the case of Israel. We divide the country into 14 regions and estimate regional future precipitation levels by implementing a climate-change down-scaling procedure. Then the model computes optimal agricultural managements under these projected rainfall levels. The results indicate a reduction of about 20% in statewide annual agricultural net-revenues by the year 2100 in comparison to 2002. Land allocated to field crops is increased on the expense of forages and vegetables. The shares of field crops and forages in the agricultural irrigation-water allotment are increased, while that of vegetables declines.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2005

Finland's national strategy for adaptation to climate change

The Parliament’s reply to the National Climate Strategy submitted to the Parliament in March 2001 identifi ed the need to draft a programme for adaptation to climate change. The preparation of the National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change was started in the latter part of 2003. The work was coordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and representatives from the Ministry of Traffi c and Communications, Ministry of Trade and Industry, Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Ministry of the Environment, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Finnish Meteorological Institute and Finnish Environment Institute took part in the preparation. Each Ministry was responsible for assessing the impacts and identifying adaptation measures in its own sector.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2005

Finland's national strategy for adaptation to climate change

The Parliament’s reply to the National Climate Strategy submitted to the Parliament in March 2001 identifi ed the need to draft a programme for adaptation to climate change. The preparation of the National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change was started in the latter part of 2003. The work was coordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and representatives from the Ministry of Traffi c and Communications, Ministry of Trade and Industry, Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Ministry of the Environment, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Finnish Meteorological Institute and Finnish Environment Institute took part in the preparation. Each Ministry was responsible for assessing the impacts and identifying adaptation measures in its own sector.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2005

Successful adaptation to climate change across scales

Climate change impacts and responses are presently observed in physical and ecological systems. Adaptation to these impacts is increasingly being observed in both physical and ecological systems as well as in human adjustments to resource availability and risk at different spatial and societal scales. We review the nature of adaptation and the implications of different spatial scales for these processes. We outline a set of normative evaluative criteria for judging the success of adaptations at different scales. We argue that elements of effectiveness, efficiency, equity and legitimacy are important in judging success in terms of the sustainability of development pathways into an uncertain future. We further argue that each of these elements of decision-making is implicit within presently formulated scenarios of socio-economic futures of both emission trajectories and adaptation, though with different weighting. The process by which adaptations are to be judged at different scales will involve new and challenging institutional processes.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2005

Beating the Heat: Keeping UK Buildings Cool in a Warming Climate

Climate change is one of the most serious issues facing us at the start of the 21st century. It may come to threaten the very future of humanity as well as many natural ecosystems.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2002

Background Paper to the Task Force on Climate Change, Adaptation and Vulnerable Communities

The sharpest impact of our changing climate on hum an systems will be the rise in incidence and severity of climate-related disasters. The two main disciplines concerned with human vulnerability to climate extremes are disaster management and climate change. While disaster managers develop and implemen t hands-on tools for reducing vu lnerability to natural hazards, they have yet to incorporate the implications of climate change into their work. Climate change researchers and policymakers are increasingly fo cusing on adapting to a changing climate, but have not yet spelled out how to do so with groun d-level action. Working from different point of departure, both disciplines have come to a common conclusion, that natural resource mismanagement contributes to the vulnerability of human systems to these hazards, and enhanced management can provide a tool for vulnerability reduction.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2000

An Anatomy of Adaptation to Climate Change and Variability

Adaptation to climate variability and change is important both for impact assessment (to estimate adaptations which are likely to occur) and for policy development (to advise on or prescribe adaptations). This paper proposes an "anatomy of adaptation" to systematically specify and differentiate adaptations, based upon three questions: (i) adapt to what? (ii) who or what adapts? and (iii) how does adaptation occur? Climatic stimuli include changes in long-term mean conditions and variability about means, both current and future, and including extremes. Adaptation depends fundamentally on the characteristics of the system of interest, including its sensitivities and vulnerabilities. The nature of adaptation processes and forms can be distinguished by numerous attributes including timing, purposefulness, and effect. The paper notes the contribution of conceptual and numerical models and empirical studies to the understanding of adaptation, and outlines approaches to the normative evaluation of adaptation measures and strategies.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים

Guide to Climate Change Adaptation in Cities

This Guide is a practical resource on responding to the challenges of climate change adaptation in cities. The principal intended audience is city officials and practitioners in developing countries, who are beginning to consider the issues of climate change adaptation, and can find in this guide an introduction and comprehensive overview of this evolving topic.The Guide offers examples of good practices and successful experiences and describes other available resource materials and tools. It outlines practical perspectives, showing ways to link climate change to community priorities and other important city issues such as disaster risk reduction, economic development, public health, sustainability, food security and other priorities. In so doing, it can contribute to the development and implementation of adaptation plans in cities, strengthening capacities and helping to catalyze dialogue on adaptation among city managers and other stakeholders.
מידע נוסף

מאמרים ופרסומים אחרונים

מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

Periodic Report Summary 1 - DYNAMIC (DYNamic feedbacks of climate impacts on current Adaptation and Mitigation Investment Choice)

The DYNAMIC (DYNamic feedbacks of climate impacts on current Adaptation and Mitigation Investment Choice) project proposes a novel framework to evaluate the economic consequences of climate change impacts and related policy responses.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

בחינת תרומת קבוצות סוציו אקונומיות בישראל לפליטות גזי חממה מצריכת מזון ביתי

לייצור המזון, במיוחד בחקלאות התעשייתית, נודעת השפעה ממשית על היקף פליטות גזי חממה באופן ישיר או עקיף. גזי חממה אלו נוצרים בכל שלבי מחזור החיים של המזון, החל משלב החקלאות ותשומותיו, דרך הייצור, הפצה, קירור, קמעונאות, הכנת המזון בבית וכלה בסילוק הפסולת.למעשה, בעוד שבמחקרים השונים קיימת הסכמה על כך שפליטות גזי חממה מייצור המזון וצריכתו מהוות חלק משמעותי מפליטות גזי החממה בעולם, המחלוקת המחקרית נסובה סביב הערכת היקף הפליטות. לדוגמא, לפי דוח של האו"ם מ- 2014 14.5% מפליטות גזי החממה כתוצאה מפעילו
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2014

Explaining Extreme Weather Events of 2013 from a Climate Perspective

The annual Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) special issue on the attribution of last year’s extreme weather events is published today. This year’s issue “explaining extreme events of 2013 – from a climate perspective” includes two papers led by researchers from our climateprediction. This is a highly-cited and influential annual publication coined in 2012 asking whether and to what extent anthropogenic climate change altered the risk of major extreme weather events of the p
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2014

Lima call for climate action- Decision

Climate Action & UNEP delivered their fifth annual Sustainable Innovation Forum on December 9 in Lima. This year’s event brought together close to 500 leaders from key United Nations bodies, governments, international & regional companies and leading non-governmental organisations (NGO's).
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

Climate Prediction for Adaptation: Who needs what?

The role of short- and long-term climate predictions in determining the success of adaptation to climate change is investigated. A simple theoretical model that captures the relationship between adaptive performance, decision structure, and prediction accuracy at different temporal scales is developed, and its implications deduced. It is shown that users who face high adjustment costs (i.e. are inflexible) depend more heavily on accurate long-term predictions than those who are able to adjust
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

UK climate change risk assessment: government report

The Government published the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA) on 25 January 2012, the first assessment of its kind for the UK and the first in a 5 year cycle. It sets out the main priorities for adaptation in the UK under 5 key themes identified in the CCRA 2012 Evidence Report - Agriculture and Forestry; Business, industries and Services; Health and Wellbeing; Natural Environment and Buildings and Infrastructure - and describes the policy context, and action already in place to tackle
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

2011 Bonn Declaration of Mayors

This declaration is the outcome document of the Mayors Adaptation Forum, which forms the Mayors segment of the Resilient Cities 2011 congress. It highlights the need to build resilience to disasters as a critical issue. It also signals the need to take appropriate action to build local capacities in reducing risk to disasters including those exacerbated by climate change.
The declaration advocates for the implementation of the following: (i) mainstreaming new adaptation and resilience standard
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

A double-resolution transient RCM climate change

A double-resolution regional experiment on hydrodynamic simulation of climate over the eastern Mediterranean (EM) region was performed using an International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste RegCM3 model. The RegCM3 was driven from the lateral boundaries by the data from the ECHAM5/MPI-OM global climate simulation performed at the MPI-M, Hamburg and based on the A1B IPCC scenario of greenhouse gases emission. Two simulation runs for the time period 1960-2060, employing spatial resolutions
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Climate Change Adaptation and Real Option Evaluation: A Case Study in Campeche, Mexico

This report illustrates the application of a (relatively) new method to guide decision making under high (and unknowable) levels of uncertainty. The approach allows for the identification of robust policy options that are economically beneficial under different scenarios and varying levels uncertainty. Option value techniques are commonly employed in the finance literature to identify investment decisions that are resilient across a spectrum of outcomes. The methods are technically advanced
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

ipcc summary for policymakers

The Working Group III Special Report on Renewa
ble Energy Sources and Climate Change
Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of th
e literature on the scientific, technological,
environmental, economic and social aspects of
the contribution of six renewable energy (RE)
sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is
intended to provide policy relevant information to
governments, intergovernmental processes and ot
her interested parties. This Summary for
Policymakers provides an ov
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2008

Climate change- vulnerability and adaptation indicators

The purpose of this Technical Paper is to rehearse some fundamental concepts surrounding the
development and delineation of adaptation indicators. It builds upon the outputs of an Expert meeting
on climate change vulnerability and adaptation indicators (Budapest, September 2008) and on the
contents of a Background Paper that was prepared for the meeting.
מידע נוסף
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