מאמרים

מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2013

The Austrian Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change

The objective of the Austrian Adaptation Strategy is to avoid the adverse effects of climate change on the environment, society, and the economy and to fully utilize any opportunities that may arise. The adoption of the Adaptation Strategy is intended to strengthen natural, social, and technological adaptive capacities.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Climate Change, Agriculture, and Poverty

ven though much has been written about climate change and poverty as distinct and complex problems, the link between them has received little attention. Understanding this link is vital for the formulation of effective policy responses to climate change. In this article the authors focus on agriculture as a primary means by which the impacts of climate change are transmitted to the poor and as a sector at the forefront of climate change mitigation efforts in developing countries. In so doing, th
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Climate change, food stress, and security in Russia

Farming in higher latitudes is generally believed to benefit from a warmer climate due to extended growing season, reduced risk of frost, availability of more productive cultivars, and an opening potential of farming in northern locations. We analyzed the impact of climate change on production of cereals in Russia and found that this general perception of beneficiary effect of a warmer climate is unlikely to hold, primarily due to increasing risk of droughts in the most important agricultural ar
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Evaporation from partially covered water surfaces

Evaporative losses from large water bodies may exceed 20% of water used in irrigated agriculture, with losses from reservoirs estimated at 50% of storage capacity. Prominent among proposed methods to curtail these evaporative losses are various forms of partial covers placed over water surfaces. Studies show that evaporation through perforated covers and from partially covered water surfaces exhibit nonlinear behavior, where rates of water loss are not proportional to uncovered surface fraction and are significantly affected by opening size and relative spacing. We studied evaporation from small water bodies under various perforated covers, extending the so-called diameter law to opening sizes in the range of 10−5 to 10−1 m. Contradicting claims concerning effects of openings and their arrangement on performance of evaporation barriers are analyzed on per opening and on per area mass losses. Our results help reconcile some classical findings invoking detailed pore-scale diffusion and simple temperature-based energetic behaviors. For fixed relative spacing, area-averaged evaporative flux density remains nearly constant across several orders of magnitude variations in opening size. For the scale of the experimental setup, we predict relative evaporation reduction efficiency for various configurations of perforated evaporation barriers.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Radically Rethinking Agriculture for the 21st Century

Population growth, arable land and fresh water limits, and climate change have profound implications for the ability of agriculture to meet this century’s demands for food, feed, fiber, and fuel while reducing the environmental impact of their production. Success depends on the acceptance and use of contemporary molecular techniques, as well as the increasing development of farming systems that use saline water and integrate nutrient flows.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Programme of Action for the Palestinian Authority

The occupied Palestinian territory, as part of the Eastern Mediterranean, is subject to many serious changes in annual rainfall, mean temperature, extreme weather events and sea level rise as stated in the fourth assessment report by IPCC. The Palestinian National Authority, represented by the Environment Quality Authority (EQA), took the lead in developing the “National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy” with support from UNDP/PAPP. Stakeholders representing all scrotal groups, including officials, researchers, representatives of NGOs, CBOs and local communities, were actively involved in preparation of this national strategy. A National Committee for Climate Change is already active and working towards highlighting the impact of climate change on different sectors aiming at developing the National Action Plan for Adaptation. We are looking forward to cooperating with the international community to actively and properly adapt to the impact of climate change to protect our planet.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Climate Change, Agriculture, and Poverty

ven though much has been written about climate change and poverty as distinct and complex problems, the link between them has received little attention. Understanding this link is vital for the formulation of effective policy responses to climate change. In this article the authors focus on agriculture as a primary means by which the impacts of climate change are transmitted to the poor and as a sector at the forefront of climate change mitigation efforts in developing countries. In so doing, th
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

Climate change, food stress, and security in Russia

Farming in higher latitudes is generally believed to benefit from a warmer climate due to extended growing season, reduced risk of frost, availability of more productive cultivars, and an opening potential of farming in northern locations. We analyzed the impact of climate change on production of cereals in Russia and found that this general perception of beneficiary effect of a warmer climate is unlikely to hold, primarily due to increasing risk of droughts in the most important agricultural areas of the country. Past impacts of droughts on food security throughout the twentieth century suggest that a number of adaptation options are available to mitigate the increasing risks of crop failure. We analyze the effectiveness of these measures in connection with a set of climate change projections, under two contrasting scenarios of interregional grain trade: “Fortress Market” and “Open Market.”
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2009

California climate adaptation stratege

In 2009, California adopted a statewide Climate Adaptation Strategy (CAS) that summarizes climate change impacts and recommends adaptation strategies across seven sectors: Public Health, Biodiversity and Habitat, Oceans and Coastal Resources, Water, Agriculture, Forestry, and Transportation and Energy. The 2009 CAS was the first of its kind in the usage of downscaled climate models to more accurately assess statewide climate impacts as a basis for providing guidance for establishing actions that prepare, prevent, and respond to the effects of climate change.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2007

Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Water, Land-use and Economic Return in Agriculture

We develop a regional scale economic model for analyzing climate-change impacts on agriculture. Non-linear production functions describing yield responses to land allocation, water application and water salinity are integrated into a mathematical programming model. The responses to water quantity and quality are estimated by the use of scientific-based models simulating equilibrium in the root zone among plant's water uptake, soil salinity and soil's water content. Internalization of land allocation among crops is based on Howitt's PMP calibration approach (1995). The model, therefore, enables assessment of climate-change impacts on optimal agricultural management, where adaptation is considered endogenously with respect to both the extensive and intensive margins. The model is applied to the case of Israel. We divide the country into 14 regions and estimate regional future precipitation levels by implementing a climate-change down-scaling procedure. Then the model computes optimal agricultural managements under these projected rainfall levels. The results indicate a reduction of about 20% in statewide annual agricultural net-revenues by the year 2100 in comparison to 2002. Land allocated to field crops is increased on the expense of forages and vegetables. The shares of field crops and forages in the agricultural irrigation-water allotment are increased, while that of vegetables declines.
מידע נוסף

מאמרים ופרסומים אחרונים

מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

Periodic Report Summary 1 - DYNAMIC (DYNamic feedbacks of climate impacts on current Adaptation and Mitigation Investment Choice)

The DYNAMIC (DYNamic feedbacks of climate impacts on current Adaptation and Mitigation Investment Choice) project proposes a novel framework to evaluate the economic consequences of climate change impacts and related policy responses.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

בחינת תרומת קבוצות סוציו אקונומיות בישראל לפליטות גזי חממה מצריכת מזון ביתי

לייצור המזון, במיוחד בחקלאות התעשייתית, נודעת השפעה ממשית על היקף פליטות גזי חממה באופן ישיר או עקיף. גזי חממה אלו נוצרים בכל שלבי מחזור החיים של המזון, החל משלב החקלאות ותשומותיו, דרך הייצור, הפצה, קירור, קמעונאות, הכנת המזון בבית וכלה בסילוק הפסולת.למעשה, בעוד שבמחקרים השונים קיימת הסכמה על כך שפליטות גזי חממה מייצור המזון וצריכתו מהוות חלק משמעותי מפליטות גזי החממה בעולם, המחלוקת המחקרית נסובה סביב הערכת היקף הפליטות. לדוגמא, לפי דוח של האו"ם מ- 2014 14.5% מפליטות גזי החממה כתוצאה מפעילו
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2014

Explaining Extreme Weather Events of 2013 from a Climate Perspective

The annual Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) special issue on the attribution of last year’s extreme weather events is published today. This year’s issue “explaining extreme events of 2013 – from a climate perspective” includes two papers led by researchers from our climateprediction. This is a highly-cited and influential annual publication coined in 2012 asking whether and to what extent anthropogenic climate change altered the risk of major extreme weather events of the p
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2014

Lima call for climate action- Decision

Climate Action & UNEP delivered their fifth annual Sustainable Innovation Forum on December 9 in Lima. This year’s event brought together close to 500 leaders from key United Nations bodies, governments, international & regional companies and leading non-governmental organisations (NGO's).
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

Climate Prediction for Adaptation: Who needs what?

The role of short- and long-term climate predictions in determining the success of adaptation to climate change is investigated. A simple theoretical model that captures the relationship between adaptive performance, decision structure, and prediction accuracy at different temporal scales is developed, and its implications deduced. It is shown that users who face high adjustment costs (i.e. are inflexible) depend more heavily on accurate long-term predictions than those who are able to adjust
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

UK climate change risk assessment: government report

The Government published the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA) on 25 January 2012, the first assessment of its kind for the UK and the first in a 5 year cycle. It sets out the main priorities for adaptation in the UK under 5 key themes identified in the CCRA 2012 Evidence Report - Agriculture and Forestry; Business, industries and Services; Health and Wellbeing; Natural Environment and Buildings and Infrastructure - and describes the policy context, and action already in place to tackle
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

2011 Bonn Declaration of Mayors

This declaration is the outcome document of the Mayors Adaptation Forum, which forms the Mayors segment of the Resilient Cities 2011 congress. It highlights the need to build resilience to disasters as a critical issue. It also signals the need to take appropriate action to build local capacities in reducing risk to disasters including those exacerbated by climate change.
The declaration advocates for the implementation of the following: (i) mainstreaming new adaptation and resilience standard
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

A double-resolution transient RCM climate change

A double-resolution regional experiment on hydrodynamic simulation of climate over the eastern Mediterranean (EM) region was performed using an International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste RegCM3 model. The RegCM3 was driven from the lateral boundaries by the data from the ECHAM5/MPI-OM global climate simulation performed at the MPI-M, Hamburg and based on the A1B IPCC scenario of greenhouse gases emission. Two simulation runs for the time period 1960-2060, employing spatial resolutions
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Climate Change Adaptation and Real Option Evaluation: A Case Study in Campeche, Mexico

This report illustrates the application of a (relatively) new method to guide decision making under high (and unknowable) levels of uncertainty. The approach allows for the identification of robust policy options that are economically beneficial under different scenarios and varying levels uncertainty. Option value techniques are commonly employed in the finance literature to identify investment decisions that are resilient across a spectrum of outcomes. The methods are technically advanced
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

ipcc summary for policymakers

The Working Group III Special Report on Renewa
ble Energy Sources and Climate Change
Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of th
e literature on the scientific, technological,
environmental, economic and social aspects of
the contribution of six renewable energy (RE)
sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is
intended to provide policy relevant information to
governments, intergovernmental processes and ot
her interested parties. This Summary for
Policymakers provides an ov
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2008

Climate change- vulnerability and adaptation indicators

The purpose of this Technical Paper is to rehearse some fundamental concepts surrounding the
development and delineation of adaptation indicators. It builds upon the outputs of an Expert meeting
on climate change vulnerability and adaptation indicators (Budapest, September 2008) and on the
contents of a Background Paper that was prepared for the meeting.
מידע נוסף
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