מאמרים

מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

National Climate Change Adaptation Emerging Practices in Monitoring and Evaluation

Developing countries are increasingly moving towards more strategic national policies and plans, the effectiveness of which will depend upon proper assessment of a given country’s vulnerability to climate change. This report draws upon emerging monitoring and evaluation practices across developed and developing countries to identify four tools that countries can draw upon in their own assessment frameworks: 1) climate change risk and vulnerability assessments, 2) indicators to monitor progress on adaptation priorities, 3) project and programme evaluations to identify effective adaptation approaches, and 4) national audits and climate expenditure reviews.The appropriate mix of tools to monitor and evaluate national climate-change adaptation will to a large extent be determined by data availability, monitoring and evaluation capacity, and the ability to bring together the producers and the users of relevant climate information. The report also examines how development co-operation providers can support partner countries in their efforts to monitor and evaluate adaptation.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

Information paper on the NAP Expo and the regional training workshops on national adaptation plans: experiences, good practices and lessons learned in addressing adaptation in the least developed coun

This document synthesizes experiences, good practices and lessons learned in adaptation presented and discussed at regional training workshops on national adaptation plans (NAPs) held between November 2014 and October 2015 and at the NAP Expo held in April 2015. At these events, participants, nominated by their governments, shared their countries’ experiences on their work on NAPs and detailed their plans to undertake the process to formulate and implement NAPs. This document is based on materia
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Adaptation financing as part of a global climate agreement: is the adaptation levy appropriate?

The negotiations for a global climate agreement recognize that substantial and additional funds need to be generated for assisting adaptation in developing countries. Currently, the 2\% adaptation levy (AL) on the clean development mechanism (CDM) is intended to serve this purpose under the Kyoto Protocol. This paper analyses whether such an arrangement can achieve its objectives, and thereby discusses its future prospects. Can it deliver the sufficient transfers for adaptation? As the AL is facutally a tax on emission trading, does it cause a significant excess burden? Does it alter the incentives for mitigation to a relevant degree? I address these questions with a partial equilibrium model based on recent marginal abatement cost estimates for 2020. While former studies have focussed on the effects of the CDM with a fixed 2\% AL, this paper studies the effect of different levels of the AL and of different emission reduction targets. It determines the expected transfers from CDM and AL for different scenarios about countries' emission reduction targets and the full range of AL levels. The paper shows that the AL that maximizies total net transfers to developing countries is quite large (about 25\%), and comes at an excess burden that is below 1\% of total costs. However, even in that case there are no substantial additional funds. The total revenues of the AL remain below \$1 billion annually if the emission reduction pledges after the Copenhagen negotiations are considered. Only for much more ambitious reduction targets maximal adaptation financing reaches the required order of magnitude of more than \$10 billion. For higher emission reductions targets the marginal costs to annex I countries are yet disproportionately increased due to rising transfers. This supports the overall conclusion that the AL is neglectable in terms of social costs, far from sufficient in terms of generated funds, but highly problematic for reaching a global climate agreement with high emission reduction targets.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2010

The Cost to Developing Countries of Adapting to Climate Change New Methods and Estimates

This document is an initial study report focusing on the first of these two objectives. It estimates the costs for major economic sectors under two alternative future climate scenarios – one wetter and one drier. It places particular emphasis on improving understanding of the impacts, sensitivity and vulnerability of the poor and most vulnerable social groups, of what adaptation would imply for their livelihoods, and what forms of public support are needed to facilitate such changes. It is intended to help policymakers cost, prioritize, sequence, and integrate specific adaptation strategies within the context of development plans and budgets.
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מאמרים ופרסומים אחרונים

מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

Periodic Report Summary 1 - DYNAMIC (DYNamic feedbacks of climate impacts on current Adaptation and Mitigation Investment Choice)

The DYNAMIC (DYNamic feedbacks of climate impacts on current Adaptation and Mitigation Investment Choice) project proposes a novel framework to evaluate the economic consequences of climate change impacts and related policy responses.
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2015

בחינת תרומת קבוצות סוציו אקונומיות בישראל לפליטות גזי חממה מצריכת מזון ביתי

לייצור המזון, במיוחד בחקלאות התעשייתית, נודעת השפעה ממשית על היקף פליטות גזי חממה באופן ישיר או עקיף. גזי חממה אלו נוצרים בכל שלבי מחזור החיים של המזון, החל משלב החקלאות ותשומותיו, דרך הייצור, הפצה, קירור, קמעונאות, הכנת המזון בבית וכלה בסילוק הפסולת.למעשה, בעוד שבמחקרים השונים קיימת הסכמה על כך שפליטות גזי חממה מייצור המזון וצריכתו מהוות חלק משמעותי מפליטות גזי החממה בעולם, המחלוקת המחקרית נסובה סביב הערכת היקף הפליטות. לדוגמא, לפי דוח של האו"ם מ- 2014 14.5% מפליטות גזי החממה כתוצאה מפעילו
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2014

Explaining Extreme Weather Events of 2013 from a Climate Perspective

The annual Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) special issue on the attribution of last year’s extreme weather events is published today. This year’s issue “explaining extreme events of 2013 – from a climate perspective” includes two papers led by researchers from our climateprediction. This is a highly-cited and influential annual publication coined in 2012 asking whether and to what extent anthropogenic climate change altered the risk of major extreme weather events of the p
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2014

Lima call for climate action- Decision

Climate Action & UNEP delivered their fifth annual Sustainable Innovation Forum on December 9 in Lima. This year’s event brought together close to 500 leaders from key United Nations bodies, governments, international & regional companies and leading non-governmental organisations (NGO's).
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

Climate Prediction for Adaptation: Who needs what?

The role of short- and long-term climate predictions in determining the success of adaptation to climate change is investigated. A simple theoretical model that captures the relationship between adaptive performance, decision structure, and prediction accuracy at different temporal scales is developed, and its implications deduced. It is shown that users who face high adjustment costs (i.e. are inflexible) depend more heavily on accurate long-term predictions than those who are able to adjust
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2012

UK climate change risk assessment: government report

The Government published the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA) on 25 January 2012, the first assessment of its kind for the UK and the first in a 5 year cycle. It sets out the main priorities for adaptation in the UK under 5 key themes identified in the CCRA 2012 Evidence Report - Agriculture and Forestry; Business, industries and Services; Health and Wellbeing; Natural Environment and Buildings and Infrastructure - and describes the policy context, and action already in place to tackle
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

2011 Bonn Declaration of Mayors

This declaration is the outcome document of the Mayors Adaptation Forum, which forms the Mayors segment of the Resilient Cities 2011 congress. It highlights the need to build resilience to disasters as a critical issue. It also signals the need to take appropriate action to build local capacities in reducing risk to disasters including those exacerbated by climate change.
The declaration advocates for the implementation of the following: (i) mainstreaming new adaptation and resilience standard
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

A double-resolution transient RCM climate change

A double-resolution regional experiment on hydrodynamic simulation of climate over the eastern Mediterranean (EM) region was performed using an International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste RegCM3 model. The RegCM3 was driven from the lateral boundaries by the data from the ECHAM5/MPI-OM global climate simulation performed at the MPI-M, Hamburg and based on the A1B IPCC scenario of greenhouse gases emission. Two simulation runs for the time period 1960-2060, employing spatial resolutions
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

Climate Change Adaptation and Real Option Evaluation: A Case Study in Campeche, Mexico

This report illustrates the application of a (relatively) new method to guide decision making under high (and unknowable) levels of uncertainty. The approach allows for the identification of robust policy options that are economically beneficial under different scenarios and varying levels uncertainty. Option value techniques are commonly employed in the finance literature to identify investment decisions that are resilient across a spectrum of outcomes. The methods are technically advanced
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2011

ipcc summary for policymakers

The Working Group III Special Report on Renewa
ble Energy Sources and Climate Change
Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of th
e literature on the scientific, technological,
environmental, economic and social aspects of
the contribution of six renewable energy (RE)
sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is
intended to provide policy relevant information to
governments, intergovernmental processes and ot
her interested parties. This Summary for
Policymakers provides an ov
מידע נוסף
מרכז הידע הישראלי להערכות לשינויי אקלים
2008

Climate change- vulnerability and adaptation indicators

The purpose of this Technical Paper is to rehearse some fundamental concepts surrounding the
development and delineation of adaptation indicators. It builds upon the outputs of an Expert meeting
on climate change vulnerability and adaptation indicators (Budapest, September 2008) and on the
contents of a Background Paper that was prepared for the meeting.
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